My dear friend Joe writes:
>> Hungary's Admiral on Horseback
>> Miklos Horthy, 1918-1944
>>Columbia University Press, 1994.
>>The book is well documented and gives a balanced picture of this
>I hope Tony Pace will also get a hold of it so he may tone down his
>rabid characterization of Horthy as demonstrated in the following
>recent exchange on the Slovak-L list. He responded to a moderate Slovak's
>comments, denoted with the ">" prefixes:
>>Both Munich and Jalta meant something else, that the region became
>>an easy food for some big, dangerous neighbour, against the will of
>>the people, under pressure of a strong political influence that ended
>>up in both cases in an open military occupation of the country.
>Its interesting that the occupation of southern Slovakia by Horthy's
>stormtroopers in 1939 and the subsequent deportations of 40,000 Jews
>by them are never mentioned in your reference to the period 1939-1945.
Joe, since you brought-up the topic to this list, may I ask why neither
you (nor anyone else) had previously commented on Joost van Beek's
posting of July 7, 1994 on the Subject: deportations
in which Joost van Beek wrote:
>In the Hungarian Quarterly Tamas Stark has written an article called
>"Hungarian Jewry at the time of the Holocaust and after the war (1941-1955).
>I promised to send you the statistics given in the article.
>Jewish population before the German occupation of Hungary x1000
> Buda- Prov- Total Present Sub-Carpath.+N-Transylv. TOTAL
> pest inces territ. +North.+South.territories HUNGARY
>..in 1941 240 240 480 110+150+45+15 800
Therefore, according to Tamas Stark's article in the Hungarian Quarterly
the Jewish population of occupied Northern-territories numbered 45,000.
>Victims of the 1941 deportation and Killed in Action/POW casualties of
>forced labour service:
> 13 13 26 6+7+4+1 44
>Population before occupation:
> 227 227 454 104+143+41+14 756
Tamas Stark identified the number of victims from Northern territories
>Deported in the summer of 1944:
> 10 170 180 85+130+30+10 435
>After the deportation:
> 217 57 274 19+13+11+4 321
>The hypothetical number of Hungarian Jews at liberation/in 1945-6 x 1000
>Jewish population after the deportation:
> " " " " "
>Labour service men lost as POW/Killed in Action, together with those
>murdered or deported under Szalasi and with all emigrants:
> 67 22 89 2+2+3+1 97
>Population at liberation:
> 150 35 185 17+17+8+3 224
>Number of Jews returned in 1945/46:
> 85 18+30+7+1.5 141
>Jewish population of wartime Hungary in 1946:
> 270 35+41+15+4.5 365
>(Northern Territories: now in Slovakia; Southern Territories: Vojvodina)
Tamas Stark identified the occupied Northern Terrritories with Slovakia.
>Where did Tamas Stark get her figures from?
>The figure of 800.000 Jews in the Hungary of 1941 ("including baptized
>Jews") is "based on the 1941 census returns, and taking into consideration
>the most recent analyses of the Central Bureau of Statistics"
> (Note nr.2: "A magyarorszagi zsidosag statisztikaja telepulesenkent" -
>settlement statistics of the Hungarian Jewry/ Central Bureau of Statistics,
>Budapest, 1993; "A kereszteny vallasu, de zsido szarmazasu nepesseg a
>nepszamlalas szerint" - Census Figures of Jewish Converts to Christianity/
>Magyar Statisztikai Szemle, 1944, No.4-5, pp.95-103.)
>The number of 44.000 victims of the 1941 deportations/the forced labour
>batallions was compiled from different sources.
>"Decree no. 192/1941, issued by the Ministry of the Interior on 12th July,
>suspended [the] liberal treatment. The police were directed to take foreign
>Jews to the Subcarpathian village of Korosmezo and hand them over to the
>military authorities. Approximately 18.000 were deported to Eastern
>Galicia...; this is the figure recorded by the Central Authority for the
>Control of Foreigners, the institution "supervising the organization of
>deportations". German sources ... estimate the number of deportees at
>11.000. (...) Ukrainian policemen rounded up the deportees in the second
>half of August. The mass murder that followed was presumably carried out by
>Einsatzgruppe C. (...)at least 2.000 deportees later fled back to Hungary"
> (Note no.3: "Az elso magyarorszagi deportalas" - The First Hungarian
>Deportation/ Uj Elet Naptar - New Life Calendar, 1960-61, Budapest, 1960)
>With "foreign Jews" probably those Jews that fled to Hungary from Poland,
>Rumania and Slovakia are meant.
>According to the article, the massacre at Novi Sad cost the life of 4.000,
>of whom 1.000 Jews.
>"...undisguised brutality on the part of the Hungarian Army" also killed
>many Jews. "As a result of ill treatment, casualty rates among Jews in
>forced labour service units exceeded combat casualties". "By the end of 1943,
>the losses suffered by forced labour service units in the campaign against
>the Soviet Union totalled 24.000 (13.000 recorded as Killed in Action,
>11.000 as POWs). Of the forced labourers taken to Bor, in Serbia, 4.000 lost
>their lives." (Note no.4: Archives for Military History: HM Vkf. 1946 eln
>The number of 435.000 Jews deported between May 15th and July 8th of 1944
>"appears in three unrelated contemporary sources": Laszlo Ferenczy, a
>Lieutenant-Colonel of the Gendarmerie involved in implementing the
>deportations, gave the figure 434.351; "the figure of 401.439 people,
>registered by the Kassa railway station command, is also precise, as
>approximately 20.000 to 30.000 persons were taken via routes that did not go
>through Kassa. The National Jewish Executive Committee recorded 412.000
>deportees. Reich Kommissar Edmund Veesenmayer estimated 430.000 Jews to have
>been "transported to the territory of the Reich".
>Two categories escaped deportation: the Budapest Jews and those in forced
>labour service. How many Jews were in forced labour batallions?
>"Tables compiled by the Registrars Department of the Ministry of Defence
>enable us to follow the number of Jews in forced labour service from the very
>beginning right up to March 1944".
>As for the numbers given as "labour service men lost as POWs/Killed in
>Action" after this time, "The records kept by the Casualties Department of the
>Ministry of Defence provide reliable data on the losses up to October 31st
>The number of victims of the Arrowcross regime is based on "records kept by
>neutral embassies and relevant authoritative sources" who mention 50.000
>Jews as being handed over to the Germans. (Note no.15:"The Final Solution",
>Gerald Reitlinger, London, 1953; "The Atlas of the Holocaust", Martin
>Gilbert, New York, 1982; "October Fifteenth. History of Modern Hungary,
>1927-1945", C.A.Macartney, Edinburgh, 1961)
>"A further 15.000 fell victim to the terrorism perpetrated by Arrowcross
>organizations and to increased wartime mortality" (Note no.16: Budapest
>Statistical Yearbook, 1948).
>"... almost 10.000 Jews managed to emigrate or escape in 1944" (Note no.17:
>"A magyarorszagi zsidosag megsemmisitese" - The Destruction of Hungarian
>Jewry. "1944-1945 MIOK Evkonyv" - 1944-45 MIOK Yearbook, 1984)
>The estimate on the number of deported Jews who returned after the war is
>based on several sources. The DEGOB (National Relief Committee for
>Deportees), financed by the American Joint Distribution Committee, kept a
>record of returning deportees, (in May and June '45, 47.500 persons
>returned, in July, August and September a further 29.157), but records break
>off after September 1945. The Department for Social Security of Returning
>Deportees in the Ministry of Public Welfare notes 5.000 deportees returning
>in 1946. Before the setting up of the DEGOB also 4.000 to 5.000 deportees
>had already returned, this number recorded by the Ministry of Welfare.
>"There is only an aggregate figure available for those who returned to the
>Sub-Carpathian territories, to Northern Transylvania, to the Northern... and
>to the Southern Territories. The total for these regions, as recorded by the
>Hungarian Section of the World Jewish Congress from an American Joint
>Distribution Committee source, is 56.600." The division among these various
>territories Tamas Stark has determined comparing census data.
>A particular tragical case mentioned in the article is that of the 10.000
>labour servicemen who fell into Russian captivity, together with their
>former guard members, in 1943- no liberation: hardly any of them survived in
>the POW camps of Marshansky and Davidovka.
>All in all 365.000 Jews who lived in the wartime territory of Hungary:
>may have survived the Holocaust, but many emigrated soon afterwards.
>"Approximately 80.000 - 100.000 Jews had left the territory within the 1944
>borders by the mid-fifties" of whom about 60.000 went to Israel.
>Tamas Stark concludes her article noting:
>"The emigrants found new homes; but the peoples living in the region
>suffered an irreplaceable loss by losing a large percentage of their Jewish