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1 VoA - Szlovakiai valasztas (mind)  56 sor     (cikkei)
2 RFE/RL Daily Report, 7 October 1994 (mind)  81 sor     (cikkei)
3 VoA - Egeszsegugyi valsag Kelet-Europaban (mind)  102 sor     (cikkei)
4 The Washington Post: Paprika (mind)  110 sor     (cikkei)
5 Az MNB hivatalos arfolyamai, 1994-OCT-06 (mind)  40 sor     (cikkei)

+ - VoA - Szlovakiai valasztas (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

Date= October  7, 1994
type= editorial
number= 0-06090
title= Slovak National Elections
content=this is the first of two editorials being released for
broadcast october 7, 1994.

Anncr: Next, an editorial reflecting the views of the U.S.

Voice: Slovakia recently held its first parliamentary elections
since becoming independent in 1993.  The Movement for a
Democratic Slovakia, led by former prime minister Vladimir
Meciar, won a plurality, with thirty-five percent of the vote.
The Hungarian Coalition and the Christian Democrats each won ten
percent of the vote, the Democratic Union nine percent, the
left-wing Association of Workers of Slovakia seven percent and
the rightist National Party five percent.  The parties are now
holding negotiations on forming a new coalition government.

       Observers from the Conference on Security and Cooperation
in Europe monitored the elections and declared them to be free
and fair.  The United States is pleased that the democratic
process functioned successfully and that voter turnout was so
large.  About seventy-five percent of eligible voters
participated in the elections.

      The major parties have indicated publicly that they plan to
seek full integration with Western institutions, including NATO
and the European Union.  Continued economic reform and
privatization are critical to developing a prosperous market
economy.  The U.S. Will do its part to help sustain the progress
that has been made and looks forward to working with the
democratically elected leaders of Slovakia.

Anncr: That was an editorial reflecting the views of the U.S.

06-Oct-94 2:52 pm edt (1852 utc)

source: Voice of America

A tovabbterjesztest a New York-i szekhelyu Magyar Emberi Jogok
Alapitvany tamogatja.

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Reposting is supported by Hungarian Human Rights Foundation News
and Information Service.
+ - RFE/RL Daily Report, 7 October 1994 (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

   			NO. 191, 7 OCTOBER 1994

Meeting in Luxembourg, environmental ministers from the European
Union, the Scandinavian nations, and the six Eastern European
states that have applied for EU membership appealed on 5 October
for "an extensive exchange of information on environmental
policies" to provide for better funding for environmental projects
in Eastern Europe. The ministers also called for "better
coordination [of funding] with international finance institutions"
and the "extensive use of co-financing" for specific projects.
Western agencies report that between 1990 and 1994 the European
Union allocated $418 million for environmental projects in the six
East European countries. Jan de Weydenthal, RFE/RL, Inc.

on 6 October that the Christian Democratic Movement is holding
coalition talks with all parties that won parliamentary seats in
the recent elections. Olga Keltosova of the MDS said after
bilateral discussions that her party and the CDM managed to find
"some common space." But at a press conference the same day, CDM
Chairman Jan Carnogursky said his party will not form a coalition
with any group that would attack or take legal steps against the
president. Following talks between the MDS and the Slovak National
Party on 6 October, SNP Chairman Jan Slota said the two parties
agreed that all further steps taken by one partner regarding the
formation of a coalition government would have to be approved by
the other. Slota said he would not cooperate with the Hungarian
coalition or with the Democratic Union. Sharon Fisher, RFE/RL,

of eight Romanian soldiers and military experts is due to arrive
in Hungary soon to supervise the reduction of Hungarian tanks, MTI
reported on 6 October. Under the European agreement on the
reduction of weapons, Hungary has to dismantle 510 tanks over the
next three years to comply with the quota assigned to Hungary.
Hungarian experts supervised a similar operation in Romania
earlier this year. Judith Pataki, RFE/RL, Inc.

RIFKIND, LUIK ON NATO AND THE BALTICS. During his visit to Vilnius
earlier this week, British Defense Secretary Malcolm Rifkind and
his Lithuanian counterpart, Linas Linkevicius, signed a memorandum
on military cooperation, BNS reported on 6 October. The document
is similar to the ones signed a few days earlier in Riga and
Tallinn. Commenting on the Baltic States' prospects for joining
NATO soon, Rifkind said the three countries should now focus on
their participation in the Partnership for Peace program and on
attaining associated membership in the European Union. Estonian
Foreign Minister Juri Luik, during his visit to the US, urged that
the Baltic States be granted NATO membership--along with Poland,
the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary--if a decision is made
to expand NATO. He also stressed that the withdrawal of Russian
troops from the Baltics was an important "step toward achieving
security in the Baltic region. But it was only the first step. The
problem of Baltic security has not yet been solved, not by far,"
BNS reported on 6 October. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc.

[As of 1200 CET]

(Compiled by Penny Morvant and Jan Cleave)
Copyright 1994, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.

A tovabbterjesztest a New York-i szekhelyu Magyar Emberi Jogok
Alapitvany tamogatja.

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Reposting is supported by Hungarian Human Rights Foundation News
and Information Service.

+ - VoA - Egeszsegugyi valsag Kelet-Europaban (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

type=correspondent report
title=Health Crisis/Eastern Europe (l only)
byline=Elaine Johanson
dateline=United Nations
voiced at:

Intro:  A new United Nations study has revealed an alarming
health crisis in the former communist states of Eastern Europe --
with Russia and Ukraine hardest hit.  The study released Thursday
by UNICEF -- the U-N children's fund -- warns deteriorating
living conditions are threatening the region's political reforms.
V-o-A correspondent Elaine Johanson reports:

Text:  The U-N study warns the health crisis and mortality rates
affecting Eastern Europe over the past four years are without
precedent during peacetime.  It points out that everywhere,
except in the Czech Republic, public opinion has turned against
political reforms.

UNICEF director James Grant says there is a great deal of
uncertainty among people.  While efforts have focused on the
shift toward market economies, less attention has been paid to
the social consequences:

                         ///Grant act///

         This crisis is obviously contributing to eroding
         political support for the reforms that are underway.  We
         are seeing political feedback  in virtually all the
         countries except the Czech Republic.  And we see a
         growing dissatisfaction with the reform process, which
         gets associated with this decline in living conditions.

                          ///End act///

The report shows the highest level of discontent with reform in
Russia -- with 79 perecent of the Russian population  not  happy
with the transition.

// Opt // The U-N study was built on data collected until the
beginning of this year.  UNICEF officials say Central Europe is
showing signs of returning to pre-transition health conditions --
which were  not  altogether satisfactory.  But the situation in
Russia and Ukraine is said to be getting even worse. // End opt

The author of the U-N study -- Giovanni Cornia -- says the big
problem in Russia is that the government is  not  collecting
enough revenue to finance the transition, while keeping a tight
monetary policy to check inflation:
                        ///Cornia act///

         The Russian state is collecting half of the taxes it
         should be collecting -- which means that child
         allowances, health expenditure, education, child care,
         anything goes down the drain because they do  not want
         to have an inflationary policy.  But they are  not
         collecting taxes.

                          ///End act///

In Russia, death rates are up by 35 percent -- mostly among adult
males.  The deaths are caused mainly by heart and circulatory
diseases, as well as a sharp increase in violence -- including
suicide and murder.  The homicide rate in Russia is said to be
twice as high as in the United States.

U-N officials note the rise of alcoholism in Russia, with the
quality of the alcohol way down because of the collapse of state
inspection services.  The quality of the food is also declining.

                        /// Rest opt ///

Poverty is growing throughout Eastern Europe. But the U-N study
shows that the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary have managed
to avoid the worst of the crisis and have contained extreme
poverty to under four percent. (Signed)

06-Oct-94 1:27 pm edt (1727 utc)

source: Voice of America

A tovabbterjesztest a New York-i szekhelyu Magyar Emberi Jogok
Alapitvany tamogatja.

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Reposting is supported by Hungarian Human Rights Foundation News
and Information Service.

+ - The Washington Post: Paprika (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

FOREIGN JOURNAL Hungary's Spicy Scandal


    Somebody is spiking Hungary's spice of life.

    Sales of paprika, the sunset-colored powder that occupies pride of place
in thespacious culinary pantheon of this central European country, were
suspended last week following the discovery of large amounts of lead-rich red
paint lacing up to one-third of the paprika samples tested by the government.
   A nationwide manhunt against what a spokesman for the National Police
Headquarters called "the biggest and most serious food adulteration case in
the country's modern history" has netted 18 people so far. At least 40 people
have been hospitalized with lead poisoning after eating dishes tainted with
poisoned paprika. The crisis is so serious that Prime Minister Gyula Horn has
appointed his deputy, Gabor Kuncze, to head the probe.
   There are many theories about a motive - including an international
conspiracy to destroy Hungary's export markets and schemes to hurt tourism
here - but the generally accepted reason is profit. According to police,
nefarious dealers figured that cutting paprika with a toxic concoction of
flour and paint could earn them significant booty. In a nation of 10 million
people who consume almost a pound of the stuff per capita a year, they
weren't far off.
   According to lawmakers and economists, the plot to taint Hungary's
favorite spice could serve as a bitter lesson to this nation, which since
1989 has been in the forefront of former East Bloc countries emerging from
four decades of communism. The scandal, they say, reflects the dangers of
rushing wildly from an overly controlled economic system to an almost
unregulated one.
   The fact that paprika is involved, they say, virtually guarantees the
lesson will be learned. Hungarians are almost as proud of their paprika and
their cuisine, the sole oasis in the culinary desert that is present-day
Eastern Europe, as they are of their unusual language.
   "Without paprika, we have no soul," said Gabor Szekelyi, the chef at
Gundel, Hungary's most famous restaurant, situated near the Budapest Zoo.
Szekelyi, who learned to cook in his grandmother's kitchen, calls the spice
"the key to my art."
   Paprika first came to Hungary in the 16th century by a circuitous route
during the occupation of the Ottoman Empire.
   Native to Central America, its seeds, like those of tomatoes and corn,
were transported to Europe by sailors plying the Atlantic Ocean. Hungarian
books devoted to paprika research claim the seeds made it to Europe aboard
Christopher Columbus's ships. The spice then traveled to the Ottoman Empire
and the great trading city of Istanbul, where it quickly became a popular
substitute for more expensive black peppercorns.
   After they invaded Hungary in 1526, Turks grew the plant here but, in
order to preserve a lucrative monopoly, banned Hungarian peasants from
cultivating it. By the late 17th century, the Turks had been driven out and
Hungarians were growing it themselves.
   Hungarian cookbooks first mentioned the spice's importance to everyday
life in the 19th century. Hungary currently produces about 6 percent of the
world's supply of paprika, varying its flavors from fireball pungent to
sugary sweet.
   According to Hungarian politicians, it was the somewhat disorderly breakup
of another monopoly that led to the recent paprika crisis.
   Before 1989, two state-owned mills dominated the paprika market in
Hungary. But with the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, a widespread
liberalization occurred in food processing. Within two years, 70 mills, all
of them private, were grinding the stuff.
   The economic and political changes that occurred throughout the former
Warsaw Pact countries were accompanied by an almost complete breakdown in
government quality controls. Scandals involving fake vodka in Poland, bad
cigarettes in Bulgaria and bogus coffee beans in Czechoslovakia were
commonplace. Such problems didn't help an agricultural sector already reeling
from the changes.
   "It really was a childish type of liberalization," said Pal Juhasz, a
former foe of Communist rule and now a member of parliament who represents
the paprika-producing region of Basc. "Everybody was given a license to
produce anything, and quality control went out the window."
   Now, there is hope the government will step in and reinstitute stricter
methods to ensure that poisons don't find their way into foods, said Agostan
Kmetty, president of the Budapest Chamber of Entrepreneurs and Traders.
   Kmetty, 48, a grizzled businessman, runs a stand in Budapest's newly
renovated main market, an awe-inspiring example of late Austro-Hungarian
Empire architecture in the heart of this beautiful city.
   "It's obvious the government is just pumping up this crisis as a way to
reassert some control over the market," Kmetty said Saturday as housewives
picked over his formidable stocks of fruit and garlic. "Nobody pays taxes
here. Nobody pays fines. This is the only way they can get people to realize
this kind of thing is important."
   Asked about his own paprika stocks, Kmetty smiled. "I've got a good
source," he whispered.
   A newspaper columnist welcomed the scandal, saying that the possibility of
a paprika shortage reminded him of the "good old days of communism," where
lines for food were commonplace. "This could bring us together again," wrote
Gusztav Megyesi.
   At a government center established to test the spice, Judit Bencze, 54, a
tax accountant, wasn't so sanguine. She has barely an ounce left at home and
feels a little uneasy. So far none of her neighbors have offered her any of
their dwindling stocks.
   "Whoever did this has no pride," she said. "I'm running low. Don't they
know we can't cook without it?"

A tovabbterjesztest a New York-i szekhelyu Magyar Emberi Jogok
Alapitvany tamogatja.

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Reposting is supported by Hungarian Human Rights Foundation News
and Information Service.

+ - Az MNB hivatalos arfolyamai, 1994-OCT-06 (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

#   A Magyar Nemzeti Bank hivatalos deviza- es valutaarfolyamai
#   Official exchange rates of the Hungarian National Bank
#     Az adatok tajekoztato jelleguek, felelosseget nem vallalok.
#     Az esetleges hibakert elnezest kerek. Velemenyeket es javitasokat
#     szivesen fogadok.
#     FYI, no responsibility. Opinions, corrections are welcome.
#       A kereskedelmi bankok arfolyamsavjai/Rates of commercial banks
#          vetel/BUY  eladas/SELL  (HUF)
#       USD  103-106   110-111
#       DEM   66-68     71-72
SOURCE='NAPI Gazdasag, 1994-OCT-08, p.11'
GBP;  171.12;  169.67;  172.67;    1;  angol font (skot es eszakir is)
AUD;   79.40;   78.76;   80.10;    1;  ausztral dollar
BEF;  339.38;  336.14;  341.64;  100;  belga (es luxemburgi) frank(100)
DKK;   17.85;   17.66;   17.96;    1;  dan korona
FIM;   22.69;   22.44;   22.78;    1;  finn marka
FRF;   20.43;   20.23;   20.57;    1;  francia frank
GRD;    0.00;   45.32;   46.12;  100;  gorog drachma(100) (atlagar nincs)
NLG;   62.37;   61.77;   62.81;    1;  holland forint
IEP;  169.24;  167.49;  170.29;    1;  ir font
JPY; 1075.30; 1066.80; 1085.40; 1000;  japan jen(1000)
CAD;   79.77;   79.17;   80.69;    1;  kanadai dollar
KWD;  361.27;  358.69;  365.35;    1;  kuvaiti dinar
DEM;   69.83;   69.13;   70.33;    1;  nemet marka
NOK;   16.07;   15.87;   16.15;    1;  norveg korona
ITL;   68.53;   68.16;   69.38; 1000;  olasz lira(1000)
ATS;  992.20;  982.59;  999.29;  100;  osztrak schilling(100)
PTE;   68.41;   67.81;   68.95;  100;  portugal escudo(100)
ESP;   84.18;   83.39;   84.85;  100;  spanyol peseta(100)
CHF;   84.31;   83.46;   84.78;    1;  svajci frank
SEK;   14.69;   14.52;   14.76;    1;  sved korona
???;   27.50;    0.00;    0.00;    1;  tr. es cl. rubel (van jele?)
USD;  107.55;  106.70;  108.70;    1;  USA-dollar
XEU;  133.42;  132.22;  134.46;    1;  European Currency Unit (ECU)