||MAKE $$$$4 WITH ONLY $5 (mind)
|| 281 sor
||Canuck Soldiers Assault Budapest Hungarians (mind)
|| 48 sor
||Translation Help? (mind)
|| 18 sor
||Re: Translation Help? OOOPS! (mind)
|| 8 sor
||national holiday (mind)
|| 9 sor
||Re: Translation Help? (mind)
|| 25 sor
||An answer to Mr. Bela Liptak commentary (mind)
|| 227 sor
||MIEP TUNTETESRE FELHIVAS (mind)
|| 91 sor
|+ - ||MAKE $$$$4 WITH ONLY $5 (mind)
From Sat Oct 26 09:55:42 1996
*** The opportunity of YOUR life!! ***
"Taking 5 minutes to read this article, someone had kindly posted on
an Internet Newsgroup, describing how to send A ONE DOLLAR U.S. BILL
TO ONLY FIVE PEOPLE AND MAKE $50,000 IN CASH WITHIN ABOUT 4 WEEKS,
can change your life!!"
***PLEASE SAVE THIS FILE!***
Hello! I've got some awesome news that I think you need to take two
minutes to read if you have ever thought "How could I make some
serious cash in a hurry???" , or been in serious debt, ready to do
almost anything to get the money needed to pay off those bill
collectors. So grab a snack, a warm cup of coffee, or a glass of your
favorite beverage, get comfortable and listen to this interesting,
Let me start by saying that I FINALLY FOUND IT! That's right!.
found it! And I HATE GET RICH QUICK SCHEMES!! I hate those schemes
like multi-level marketing, mail-order schemes, envelope stuffing
scams, 900 number scams... the list goes on forever. I have tried
every darn get rich quick scheme out there over the past 12 years. I
somehow got on mailing lists for people looking to make money (more
like 'desperate stupid people who will try anything for money!').
Well, when I was a teenager, these claims to 'get me rich quick'
sounded irresistible! I would shell out $14.95 here, $29.95 there,
$24.95 here, and another $49.95 there. I had maxed out my new Circuit
City Card AND my Visa...I was desperate for money!! So, I gave them
all a chance but failed at every one of them! Maybe they worked for
some people, but not for me. Eventually, I just tossed that JUNK MAIL
in the trash when I got the mail. I recognized it right away. I
can>smell a money scam from a mile away these days, SO I THOUGHT....
I thought I could sniff out a scam easily. WAS I WRONG!! ....I LOVE
I was scanning thru a NEWSGROUP and saw an article stating to
GET CASH FAST!! I thought..."Here on the Internet?? Well, I'll just
have to see what schemes could possibly be on the internet." The
article described a way to MAIL A ONE DOLLAR BILL TO ONLY FIVE PEOPLE
AND MAKE $50, 000 IN CASH WITHIN 4 WEEKS! Well, the more I thought
about it, the more I became very curious. Why? Because of the way it
worked AND BECAUSE IT WOULD ONLY COST ME FIVE DOLLARS (AND FIVE
STAMPS), THAT'S ALL I EVER PAY....EVER!!
Ok, so the $50,000 in cash was maybe an tough amount to reach, but
it was possible. I knew that I could at least get a return of $1,000
or so. So I did it!! As per the instructions in the article, I mailed
out ('snail mail'for you e-mail fanatics) a single dollar bill to each
of the five people on the list that was contained in the article. I
included a small note, with the dollar, that stated "Please Add Me To
Your List." I then removed the first position name of the five names
listed and moved everyone up one position, and I put my name in
position five of the list. This is how the money starts rolling in!
I then took this revised article now with my name on the list and
REPOSTED IT ON AS MANY NEWSGROUPS AND LOCAL BULLETIN BOARD
MESSAGE AREAS THAT I KNEW. I then waited to watch the money come
in...prepared to maybe receive about $1000 to $1500 in cash or so....
But what a welcome surprise when those envelopes kept coming in!!! I
knew what they were as soon as I saw the return addresses from people
all over the world-Most from the U.S., but some from Canada, even some
from Australia! I tell you, THAT WAS EXCITING!! So how much did I
get in total return? $1000? $5000? Not even!!! I received a total of
$23,343!!! I couldn't believe it!!
I now have a brand new black Acura Integra to speak for, due to
this!! Now after almost 8 months, I am ready to do it again!!! So
maybe it was possible to get $50,000 in cash, I don't know, but IT
COMPLETELY DEPENDS ON YOU, THE INDIVIDUAL! You must follow through
and repost this article everywhere you can think of! The more
postings you achieve will determine how much cash will arrive in your
very own mailbox!! It's just too easy to pass up!!!
Let's review the reasons why you should do this: The only cost
factors are for the five stamps, the 5 envelopes and the 5 one dollar
bills that you send out to the listed names by snail mail (US Postal
Service Mail). Then just simply repost the article (WITH YOUR NAME
ADDED) to all the newsgroups and local BBS's you can. Then sit back
and, (ironically), enjoy walking (you can run if you like! :o ) down
your driveway to your mailbox and scoop up your rewards!! We all have
five dollars to put into such an easy effortless investment with
SPECTACULAR REALISTIC RETURNS OF $15,000 to $25,000 in about 3-5
weeks! So HOLD OFF ON THOSE LOTTERY NUMBERS FOR TODAY,EAT AT HOME
TONIGHT INSTEAD OF TAKEOUT FROM McDONALDS AND INVEST FIVE DOLLARS
THIS AMAZING MONEY MAKING SYSTEM NOW!!! YOU CAN'T LOSE!!
So how do you do it exactly, you ask? I have carefully provided
the most detailed, yet straightforward instructions on how to easily
get this underway and get your cash on its way. SO, ARE YOU READY TO
MAKE SOME CASH!!!?? HERE WE GO!!!
NOW LET ME TELL YOU WHY THIS SYSTEM WORKS!
Of every 200 postings I made, I received an average of 5 replies, YES
ONLY 5, each with a $1 bill enclosed. You make $5 for every 200
postings WITH YOUR NAME AT NUMBER 5.
Each person who sent you $1, now also makes let's say,only 200
additional postings WITH YOUR NAME AT NUMBER 4, i.e. 1000 postings.
On average therefore, 50 people will send you $1 with your name at
number 4. You make $50.
Your 50 new agents make 200 posting each WITH YOUR NAME AT NUMBER 3
or 10 000 postings - average return 500 at $1 each is $500. They
make 200 postings each WITH YOUR NAME AT NUMBER 2 = 100 000 postings
= 5 000 returns at $1 each = $5 000.
Finally, 5 000 people make 200 postings each WITH YOUR NAME AT NUMBER
1 and you get a return of $50 000 before you name drops off the list.
AND THAT'S IF EVERYONE DOWN THE LINE ONLY MAKES 200 POSTINGS! Total
income in one cycle = $55 500.
From time to time, when your name is no longer on the list, you take
the latest posting that is appearing in the newsgroups, SEND OUT
ANOTHER $5 TO THE NAMES THAT ARE ON THE LIST, PUT YOUR NAME IN
AT NUMBER 5 AND START POSTING AGAIN. Remember, 200 postings is only
a guideline. The more you post, the greater the return.
*** THE LIST OF NAMES IS AT THE END OF THIS ARTICLE. ***
OK, Read this carefully. Get a printout of this information, if you
like, so you can easily refer to it as often as needed.
1. Take 5 separate pieces of paper and write on it your name and
adress with the following: "PLEASE ADD MY NAME TO YOUR LIST". THIS
CREATES A SERVICE OUT OF THIS MONEY MAKING SYSTEM AND THUS MAKING
COMPLETELY LEGAL. You are not just randomly sending a dollar to
you are PAYING ONE DOLLAR FOR A LEGITIMATE SERVICE. Make sure you
include your name and address. I assure you that, again, this is
completely legal! For a neat little twist, also write what slot their
name was in: "You were in slot 3", Just to add a little fun! This is
all about having fun and making money at the same time!
2. Now fold this sheet of paper around a U.S. dollar bill: go to your
bank if you don't live in the U.S.(no checks,coins or money orders),
and put them into an envelope and send it on its way to the five
listed. The folding of the paper around the bill will insure its
to its recipient. THIS STEP IS IMPORTANT!!
3. Now listen carefully, here's where you get YOUR MONEY COMING TO
YOUR MAILBOX. Look at the list of five people; remove the first
name from position one and move everyone on the list up slot one on
the list. Position 2 name will now move to the position 1 slot ,
position 3 will now become position 2, 4 will be be 3, 5 wil be 4.
Now put your name, address, zipcode AND COUNTRY in position 5, the
bottom position on the list.
4. Now upload this updated file to as many newsgroups and local
bulletin boards' message areas & file section as possible. Give a
catchy description of the file so it gets noticed!! Such as:
"NEED FAST CASH?, HERE IT IS!" or "NEED CASH TO PAY OFF
YOUR DEBTS??", etc. And the more uploads, the more money you will
make, and of course, the more money the others on the list will make
too. LET'S ALL TAKE CARE OF EACH OTHER BY BEING HONEST AND BY PUTTING
FORTH 120 PERCENT INTO THIS PROFITABLE & AMAZING SYSTEM!!! You'll reap
the benefits, believe me!!! Set a goal for the number of total uploads
you'll post, such as 100 postings or more! Always have a goal in
mind!!! If you can UUE encode the file when uploading, that will make
it easier for the people to receive it and have it downloaded to their
hard drive. That way they get a copy of the article right on their
computer without hassles of viewing and then saving the article from
the File menu. Don't alter the file type, leave it as an MS-DOS Text
file. The best test is to be able to view this file using Microsoft's
Notepad for Windows 3.x or WordPad for Windows '95. If the margins
look right without making the screen slide left or right when at the
ends of the sentences, you're in business!
5. If you need help uploading, simply ask the sysop of the BBS, or
"POST" a message on a newsgroup asking how to post a file, tell them
who your Internet provider is and PEOPLE WILL ALWAYS BE GLAD TO HELP.
I would try to describe how to do it but there are simply too many
internet software packages with slightly different yet relatively
simple ways to post or upload a file. Just ask for help or look in
the help section for 'posting'. I do know that for GNN, you simply
select 'POST' then enter a catchy description under the subject box,
choose 'ATTACH', selecting 'UUE' and NOT 'TXT', then choose 'Browse'
to go look for the file. Find your text file CASH.TXT and click on it
and choose 'OK'. Place a one line statement in the main body section
of the message post screen. Something like "Download this to read how
to get cash arriving in your mailbox with no paybacks!" or whatever.
Just make sure it represents its true feasibility, NOT something
like..."Get one million dollars flooding in your mailbox in two days!"
You'll never get ANY responses!
6. And this is the step I like. JUST SIT BACK AND ENJOY LIFE BECAUSE
CASH IS ON ITS THE WAY!! Expect to see a little money start to
trickle in around 2 weeks, but AT ABOUT WEEKS 3 & 4, THE MONEY STORM
WILL HIT YOUR MAILBOX!! All you have to do is take it out of the
mailbox and try not to scream too loud (outside anyway) when you
realize YOU HIT THE BIG TIME AT LAST!!
7. So go PAY OFF YOUR BILLS AND DEBTS and then get that something
special you always wanted or buy that special person in your life (or
the one you want in your life) a gift they'll never forget. ENJOY
8. Now when you get low on this money supply, simply re-activate
this file again; Reposting it in the old places where you originally
posted and possibly some new places you now know of. Don't ever lose
this file, always keep a copy at your reach for when you ever need
cash. THIS IS AN INCREDIBLE TOOL THAT YOU CAN ALWAYS RE-USE TIME AND
TIME AGAIN WHEN CASH IS NEEDED!
THE NAMES LIST THE NAMES LIST THE NAME LIST
* HONESTY IS WHAT MAKES THIS PROGRAM SUCCESSFUL!!!
*1. Dany Asselin
* 375 Delisle
* Chicoutimi, Quebec
* G7G 3B4
*2. Dave LeClair
* P0 Box # 1755
* Belle River, Ontario
* N0R 1A0
*3. Roland Hins
* 455 Tenier
* Beauport, Quebec
* G1C 4X8
*4. Mark Taylor
* 33 De Normandie
* Gatineau, Quebec
* J8T 1V6
*5. Mark Lebbin
P.O. Box 21463
Wichita, Kansas 67208-7463
YOU HAVE NOTHING TO LOSE!!!!! TRY IT!!!!!
Try to keep a list of everyone that sends you a dollar and always keep
an eye on the local postings of this file... Just to make sure that
everyone is playing the game fairly. You know where your name should
Some people have said to me "What happens if the scheme is 'played
out' and no one sends me any money"? Big deal! So you lose $5 - but
what are the chances of that happening?
Do you realise how many Internet Users there are? Do you realise how
many times this scheme can be utilised over and over again - with
COMPLETELY NEW people participating?
There are not HUNDREDS, NOT EVEN THOUSANDS, BUT HUNDREDS OF
THOUSANDS OF NEW INTERNET USERS EVERY MONTH!
Remember, read the instructions carefully and play FAIRLY...that's
the only way this will work. Get a printout so you can refer back
to this article easily.
*** By the way, if you try to deceive people by posting the messages
with your name in the list and not sending the money to the people
already included, you will not get much. I know someone who did this
and only got about $150 (and that's after two months). Then he sent
the 5 bills, people added him to their lists, and in 4-5 weeks he had
All the lists are re-distributed as soon as the money is received.
end of article
|+ - ||Canuck Soldiers Assault Budapest Hungarians (mind)
The Toronto Star, Oct 18/96
CANADIAN SOLDIERS HELD IN BUDAPEST ASSAULT
Two Canadian soldiers are in custody in
Hungary and two others are being sought after an
attack on a couple in Budapest.
The soldiers were on leave from the NATO-led
peacekeeping mission in nearby Bosnia late Friday
when the assaults allegedly took place.
The incident was brought to light yesterday
after a story -- based on information from the
state-run MTI news agency -- was published in Mai
Nap, Budapest's largest newspaper.
"From what our reporter was able to find out,"
said Ferenc Kosegi, editor-in-chief of Mai Nap,
"the soldiers were drunk, saw a pretty woman in the
passenger seat of a car at a stop sign, and tried
to talk to her.
"The driver tried to drive off," but his path
was blocked, said Kosegi, adding the driver was
then dragged from his car and beaten.
Kosegi said one assailant allegedly molested
the woman "but someone alerted police before he
could get very far."
The couple, both Hungarians from Budapest,
were taken to hospital and treated for cuts.
Defence department officials in Ottawa did not
confirm those details, but acknowledged an incident
had occurred involving Canadian soldiers in
"The incident is being investigated by people
from out Bosnian headquarters in Coralici," said
Capt. James Simiana. "Right now, we are trying to
determine exactly what happened."
Kosegi said one of the soldiers arrested was
so drunk he was treated in hospital for alcohol
poisoning. He also said Hungarian authorities had
asked Canadian Forces officials in Hungary to turn
the two soldiers who fled over to them.
Hungarian authorities didn't release the
names of the soliders, and Canadian officials said
yesterday they didn't know their names or their
Most Canadians now serving in Bosnia are from
the Royal 22nd Regiment (the Van Doos), based in
|+ - ||Translation Help? (mind)
Could some kind soul translate the following?
Book Title - MAGYAR NEMES CSALA'DOK
Passage from the book - Cserepi. - Az 1754/55 e'vi orsz. nemesi
o"sszeira'skor Zen(blotch on copy) le'nmegye'ben Sa'muel igazolja
Gyula = ?
Zsuzsa = ?
|+ - ||Re: Translation Help? OOOPS! (mind)
I left out:
"During the 1754/55 National Census OF NOBILITY, Samuel........
Visit my homepage! http://mason.gmu.edu/~achassel/
|+ - ||national holiday (mind)
Can someone tell me the date of the Hungarian National Holiday and
what it celibrates.
I can't seem to find that information anywhere.
|+ - ||Re: Translation Help? (mind)
Here's the translation -
"Hungarian Noble Families"
During the 1754/1755 National Census, Samuel proves [or certifies,
validates, claims] his nobility in Zemplény County (Megye)."
Gyula = Gyula ... Old Hungarian name. Gy pronounced like "du" in duel.
Zsuzsa = Zsuzsanna = Susanna (maybe). Zs pronounced like Zsa Zsa gabor.
This event could have taken place in a different county. Not seeing the
blotch makes it tough. And I believe Cserepy should have an accent, i.e,
Cserépy. Maybe not. Good luck, I hope this helps. Maybe others can
help even more.
Visit my homepage! http://mason.gmu.edu/~achassel/
|+ - ||An answer to Mr. Bela Liptak commentary (mind)
ANSWER TO MR. LIPTAK BELA'S COMMENTARY
"TRIANON CONCLUSIONS OF A 75 YEAR TRAGEDY"
Transylvania's history has always been a frequently discussed theme, either
by historians, political scientists, sociologists, etc., due to the history
of this zone and to very complex implications it might have for the
1996 brings in a special accent to those commentaries - it marks 1100 years
since Romanians and Hungarians met, for the very first time, in Pannonia and,
after, in Transylvania; since then, the destinies of the two peoples have
always been related one to the other.
Unfortunately, a scientific approach misses many times, being substituted by
studies generated by political interests. One of those, with major and
flagrant inadvertences, is Liptak Bela's. We are surprised that the
distinguished (ex-) professor of the Yale University utilises, from the
beginning, an antagonism of concepts. Thus, he affirms that the Trianon
Treaty "mutilated and dismembered an old European nation - the Kingdom of
Hungary". Or, the nation concept refers to a kind of human community, while
the kingdom refers to a form of political organisation of a the society that
often might be multinational. And, of course, the system of the Versailles
treaties (1919-1920) marked the dismembering of the Austrian-Hungarian
monarchy, and not of the Kingdom of Hungary, a part of the late multinational
In his historical considerations on the Millenary Hungary, mister Liptak
Bela forgets mentioning that around 900, the ethnic frame of the regions
between Middle and Inferior Danube was rather complex and was not at all a
"terra deserta". Within all this space, from Bohemia to the Balkans,
historical sources mention, since the 7th and the 8th centuries, a number of
incipient states or pre-state formations. There is no doubt that, under
names as Gothia, Hunnia, Gepoda, Avaria, Bulgaria, etc., there have been the
Tracian-Dacian-Romans (Latin-speakers) and Romanians. But only after they
completed their genesis as a people and they were perceived like one by the
neighbourly states, they have begun to be mentioned by written sources and
to participate in military actions in the region.
Mr. Liptak Bela's affirmation that "Hungary offered asylum to the Romanians
in the East" relies on no historical basis. The 896's event - the arrival
and the settling down of the Hungarian tribes in Pannonia and their pillage
expeditions - made to be mentioned, the first time by a written source, the
incipient states of Gelu, Glad and Menumorut, situated on the actual
territory of Romania. The mention is made by the old Latin-Hungarian
chronicle of King Bela the 3rd's anonymous notary, confined by many other
later chronicles and by other sources.
Mr. Liptak Bela sometimes has a few moments of objectivity - he recognises
that the Hungarian feudal kingdom "contained 14 national minorities, the
Hungarians representing only one of them". You are perfectly right,
Mr. Liptak, for the Hungarians have been a minority in their own country,
until the Treaty of Trianon !
About 1526, when the army assembled by the king of Hungary was defeated at
Mohacs, the following Turkish invasion did not divide in three parts the
Hungarian Kingdom, but simply abolished it. The Hungarian State, independent
and sovereign, will not appear any more on Europe's maps, until the Treaty
Another sensible moment discussed by Mr. Liptak Bela is the 1848/49
Revolution. In Central Europe, this Revolution had two major components: a
generally democratic one and a national one. The so-called "battle for
Hungary's independence", lead by Kossuth Lajos, represented only the
struggle for applying democratic principles in a State where millions of
Romanians, Croatians, Serbs, Slovakians, Rutenians, etc. would have been
citizens. Nevertheless, Kossuth Lajos always denied those nations the right
of a national existence. Still, democratic ideologists of the nationalities
had conditioned civil rights and liberties by maintaining national identity.
The Romanian Simion Barnutiu had already proclaimed, in 1848, that
"individual freedom without national freedom means nothing".
Mr. Liptak Bela is deeply wrong alleging that the Hungarian Revolutionary
Army forced the Habsburgs to accept the formation of an Austrian-Hungarian
coalition. First, at October 6, 1849, when 13 of its generals were beheaded,
the Revolutionary Army disappeared. The Hungarian leader Kossuth Lajos,
became a refugee in the USA and never accepted the Austrian-Hungarian
compromise nor the attitude of the Hungarian elite to drop the independence
plans he was attached to.
By the dualist institution of 1867, the Hungarian part received some of the
State prerogatives, being allowed to have a distinct organisation, but
exclusively for the internal affairs. The autonomous Hungarian State had no
army of itself, no Finances, no Diplomacy - the basic prerogatives of a State
were simply missing. Still, the autonomous Hungarian State constantly lead a
politic of assimilation of nationalities (the Trefort law, the Banffi law,
the Apponyi law, etc.). The 1910 census revealed that the Hungarians reached
a number of 10,050,575 (48%) persons from a total of 20,886,467. The resting
10,835,912 non-Hungarians (52%) were Romanians (2,949,032), Germans
(2,037,435), Slovakians (1,967,970), Croatians (1,833,164), Serbs (1,106,471)
and other nationalities, with lower percentages (Laszlo Katus, "Multinational
Hungary in the Light of Statistics", in "Ethnicity and Society in Hungary",
edited by Ferenc Glatz, Budapest, 1990, p. 120).
During the World War 1, the struggle for national emancipation in the
Austrian-Hungarian Empire increased. The programs of the Romanians, the
Slovakians, the Serbs, included now democratic principles and concepts;
among those, a central place was occupied by the right of all peoples to
self-determination, a legal corollary of the national principle.
This national principle was evoked in the President Woodrow Wilson's 14
points Statement, January 8, 1918 (even if not under an express form, being
mentioned the federal reorganisation of the Empire. Still, his speech in
the Congress (February 14, 1919) and the Mount Vennont Proclamation
(July 4, 1919) expressed United States' will of reorganisation of Europe on
a self-determination basis. This aspect was immediately perceived by the
Hungarian politicians; Count Andrassy, for example, claimed that
self-determination was a harmful and dangerous concept and his implementation
would have lead to the end of the Hungarian State.
By their proclamations of October 12 and 17, 1918, the Allied and Associated
Powers announced the Central Powers that armistices were meant to be
concluded on a national self-determination basis. The natural conclusion is
that the dismembering of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire was not due to
World Powers but to its internal weakness and to the determined action of
the oppressed peoples. The Romanian nation of Transylvania clearly
expressed its option, being the majority people of the province (according
to the 1910 census, in Transylvania lived 5,225,618 persons; among them,
54% Romanians (2,827,419), 31% Hungarians (1,662,180), 12% Germans (1,662,180)
and other nationalities, with lower percentages.
After December 1, 1918, the Hungarian leaders adopted a new strategy, in
order to ensure Hungary's integrity. They pushed the Germans to oppose to
the arrival of the Romanian Army, pushed the Hungarians to civil
disobedience and to not give oath of fidelity to the new authorities.
They encouraged Transylvania to become enclaved, sustaining the creation of
political units in regions where the Romanians were not majority. This is
how the "republics" mentioned by Mr. Liptak appeared. On purpose he does
not mention anything about Romanian actions, that climaxed with the Great
National Assembly of Alba-Iulia or about the Romanian institutions created
after December 1, 1918 (The Ruling Council). He does not mention anything
because all the facts prove the normalisation of the situation - the right
of self-determination that the Romanians acquired. This is why the Treaty
of Trianon - which constitutes a veritable obsession for Mr. Liptak - simply
legalised a political reality. His assertions that by "fragmenting" Hungary
have been created "unjustly successor" States, is weird - at the Peace
Conference nobody discussed about dismembering Hungary - how to dismember a
State that does not exist ?
The Paris Treaty (1919-1920) established the dismembering of the
Austrian-Hungarian Empire and the appearance of new States - Austria,
Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, the territorial re-unification of
Poland, the realisation of the national unity of Romania. The assertion
that the Trianon Treaty lead to the apparition of "artificial States"
(supported, in the author's mind by the actual secessions of Czechoslovakia
and Yugoslavia) is far away from the truth. The Yugoslavian drama relies on
many causes, among those multi-confessionalism, nationalism, international
conjecture, interests of World Powers.
The author evoked the Yugoslavian drama in order to realise a captatio
benevolentiae, because he sustained that the "successor States", in the
period between the two World Wars, tried to solve out the national problem
not by applying the Minorities' Treaty, but by means of denationalisation,
ethnic purge, expulsions and other such methods. Due to this regime of
terror - sustains the author - 350,000 persons would have had emigrated in
Hungary. We don't know what were the sources of Mr. Liptak, for contemporary
Hungarian sources refer to a number of 197,035 repatriated to Hungary
(Dr. Sulyak Istvan and Dr. Fritz Laszlo).
Another error carried out by Mr. Liptak refers to the Hungarian minority's
education network in Romania between the two World Wars. Contrary to his
assertions, in 1934, for 1,353,675 Hungarians there were 17 colleges,
27 secondary schools, 7 vocational schools, 5 commercial schools,
1 agricultural school and 1139 primary confessional schools.
The Hungarians also kept their 8 societies founded before 1918 and founded
some new ones - the "Helikon" (1926), two Academies (a Catholic one and a
Protestant one) and many other cultural institutions. Between 1918-1933 5,000
literary and scientific works were published, more than there were published
between 1867-1918. In 1936 the Hungarian Gyorgy Lajos stated: "For sure,
the Hungarians from Transylvania have today a cultural life as active and
intense as they had in the 16th and in the 17th centuries, when the center
of the Hungarian culture was entirely found in Transylvania".
Even before the conclusion of the Paris Peace Treaty in 1947, the Soviets
tried to manage accordingly to their political and military interests the
national conflicts in Central Europe. Thus, the retroceding of
Transylvania - accorded to Hungary by the Dictate of Vienna in 1940 - was
conditioned by the instauration of a procommunist government lead by
Petru Groza. Moscow also imposed, in 1952, the creation of the Hungarian
Autonomous Region, on the pattem of Soviet autonomous regions. The Soviets
ably speculated the old Romanian-Hungarian problem, the same way Hitler
did, 12 years before. It's well known that the Communist regimes in Central
Europe promoted a religious policy inspired by Moscow. This politic aimed
to subordinate the activity of all cults, in order to dissolute religion.
Mr. Liptak affirms that in the "successor States" (including Romania) the
Hungarian catholic hierarchy was replaced by non-Hungarians. Nothing more
false: after denouncing the Concordat and the expulsion of the Apostolic
nuncio, the Romanian Catholic Church had a "semi-legal" status until 1990.
On the other hand, Mr. Liptak forgets to mention that the Catholics forced to
pass to Orthodoxism were greek-catholics (Rutenians, Slovakians, Romanians
and not Hungarians).
The "forced assimilation" started in the "successor States" after 1956
exists only in author's mind. The censuses effectuated in 1956 and 1977 in
Romania offer the following figures: in 1956, from a total of 6,232,312
Transylvanian inhabitants, the Romanians represented 65% (4,151,603) and
the Hungarians 25% (1,558,631); in 1977, from a total of 7,500,048
inhabitants, 5,203,846 were - Romanians and 1,691,048 Hungarians (Cf. Ioan
and Sorina Bolovan "Ethnic and Religious Structure in 20th Century in
Romania", in Transylvanian Review, vol.III, nr.3, autumn 1994).
Must be mentioned that the Hungarian minority always had a complex educational
network in Hungarian language.
After 1990, the new laws guaranteed equal rights to the national minorities,
according to the standards established by the international conventions and
the CSCE-OSCE documents.
The new Romanian Constitution guarantees the right for the persons belonging
to national minorities to have education in their own languages and religious
education for all cults.
The educational network of the Hungarian minority includes all degrees of
education, from kindergartens to Universities. This network has 2395 units
and sections. There are sections where Hungarian is used in the educational
process - at the "Babes-Bolyai" University (Cluj-Napoca), the Bucharest
the Medical and Pharmaceutical University (Cluj-Napoca), the Theater Academy
(Cluj-Napoca). The State budget provides financial support for editing
houses, museums, memorials, and cultural magazines belonging to the
Hungarian minority. It is interesting to mention that there is a Hungarian
Opera at Cluj-Napoca, for 1,700,000 Hungarians, while at Budapest there is
only one Opera for 10,000,000 Hungarians !
The principle of local autonomy, of decentralisation of public services and
the functioning of the local public administration was established by the
Law nr.69/November 26, 1991. After the 1992 local elections, the Hungarian
-Mayors (cities, towns, villages) - 184
-Vice-mayors (cities, towns, villages) - 173
-Counsellors (cities, towns, villages) - 2950
Any other data about the Hungarian minority living in Romania is to be found
in "The Hungarians of Romania" (Nicolae Edroiu and Vasile Puscas, historians
of the "Babes-Bolyai" University of Cluj-Napoca).
In conclusion, the Trianon Treaty was not imposed by any violence. The War
was violent and brutal. But the peace was established by negotiations, where
all delegations, including the Hungarian one, gave their opinion.
We repeat, Mr. Liptak Bela, the kingdom of Hungary was dismembered in 1526
and Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania are successor States of the
Austrian-Hungarian Empire, just as Hungary and Austria are.
After 394 years, Hungary reappears on Europe's map as a republican State,
within its natural borders, where the majority of the population is Hungarian.
So, Mr. Liptak Bela, if you attempt to discuss historical problems, remember
that history is a science and then make your conclusions about Trianon.
Hungary was not dismembered, but established. The 4th of June 1920, it was
signed the birth certificate of an independent, sovereign, modem and
civilised Hungarian State.
prof. univ. dr. Iona-Aurel Pop
Centrul de Studii Transilvane
|+ - ||MIEP TUNTETESRE FELHIVAS (mind)
Ertesuleseim szerint---mint azt mar megszokhattuk---megakadalyoztak, hogy
a kovetkezo hirdetes a mediumokban ill. a napi sajtoban megjelenjek. Ezert
a szolas, velemeny es gyulekezesi szabadsag feltetlen hivekent
kotelessegemnek erzem a hirdetes kozzetetelet, mivel az egy torvenyesen
bejegyzett part torvenyesen bejegyzett tuntetesere valo felhivasa,
melyen semmi jel nem mutat arra, hogy valaki is a szervezok reszerol
meg kivanna szegni az alkotmanyos rendet. (Hogy a hatosagok reszerol
mi keszul, azt csak talalgathatjuk.)
Tovabba kovetelem a mediumok reszerol elkovetett fenti torvenytelenseg
(a hirdetes kozzetetelenek megtagadasa) orvoslasat es a felelosok peldas
megbunteteset. ERdemes lenne elgondolkodni egy HL kampanyrol ezugyben.
A hirdetes szoveget a MIEP szorolapokon terjeszti. Elofordulhat,
hogy olyan szorolapok is megjelennek a MIEP neveben, melyet nem az
bocsatott ki. Ez a multban mar tobb alkalommal a MIEP-pel is, es a
a Fuggetlen Kisgazda Foldmunkas es Polgari Part-al (FKGP) is megtortent.
Elhallgatas es dezinformacio. Ez a ``szolasszabadsag'' ma Magyarorszagon.
Szomoru, hogy egyre tobb bizonyitek van ra, hogy ezekben bolsevista
kormanyunk a legnagyobb demokraciatol, az USA-tol kap tamogatast, sot,
mint ujabban kiderult, instrukciokat. (Ld. a Szabo Ivan sztori.)
Persze, az USA eloszeretettel tamogat emberevoket is, ha abbol haszna van.
Oktober 27-en vasarnap: orszagos tuntetes a kormany elleni osszefogasert.
Eljen a haza! Vesszen a kormany!
Eleg volt a szethuzesbol, a parterdekek hajszolasabol. Vegyuk kezbe
sorsunk intezeset. Legyunk vegre ujra egy akaraton, mint 1956 oktobereben
Vesszenek a hazaarulok! Az avos-csemetek, a pufajkasok, a milliomos
haszonelvezok, a parazitak.
A magyarsag felemelkedeseert, a szabadsagert, a joletert tuntetunk.
Elnyomoink ellen, a kormany ellen. Magyarorszagot most a sirasoi
kormanyozzak. Fogjunk ossze sirasoink ellen!
Gyulekezes: 13 oratol a Koztarsasag teren.
Nagygyules: 15.30-kor a Kossuth Lajos teren.
A menet utvonala:
Koztarsasag ter--Rakoczi ut--Erzsebet korut--Terez korut--Podmaniczky u.--
Bajcsy-Zsilinszky ut--Alkotmany u.--Kossuth Lajos ter.
Tudod-e miert nyomorogsz magyar testverunk?
Mert elobb Kadar, Aczel, Lazar, Biszku, Marosan, aztan Grosz, Nemeth
es a paktumos Antall, majd Bokros, Horn, Peto, Suranyi, Suchman
kiraboltak es kiarusitottak az orszagot.
Rendszert kell valtani vegre!
Ez a tolvaj rezsim ertelmetlenne teszi az eletunket.
Eljunk, mint a kutyak? Lessuk, hogy lehull-e valami az asztalrol?
Zsebunk uresseget nem orzi banktitok, de az o milliardos uzelmeinkbe
nincs betekintesunk. Meddig turjuk ezt?
Mikor lesz normalis, tisztesseges eletunk?
Mikor nem kell felnunk a holnaptol?
Csak akkor, ha elkergettuk, levaltottuk oket a hatalombol.
Mindent tonkretettek, eledtak. A rablott holmit vissza kell venni toluk.
Elso lepeskent ebbol teremtunk egy kis konnyebbseget minden megrablott
Mi uj torvenyt akarunk irni. Igazsagosat, magyart. Elso pontja: a magyar
nep, nemzet erdeke mindenekelott.
Ezek mar 1982 ota rabolnak, haracsolnak. Eleg volt!
Magyar testverunk! Meg akarsz szabadulni terheidtol? Meg akarod menteni
a csaladodat? Tarts velunk, tegy valamit a jovodert!
Egyutt a magyar osszefogasert, jobb, szebb jovonkert. Mondjuk szemukbe
a tonkretevoinknek: eleg volt, levaltjuk oket, visszavesszuk toluk
Menjenek oda, ahova lealapszezodtek!
A Magyar Igazsag es Elet Partja