Hollosi Information eXchange /HIX/
Copyright (C) HIX
Új cikk beküldése (a cikk tartalma az író felelőssége)
Megrendelés Lemondás
1 VoA - Europai Unio (mind)  70 sor     (cikkei)
2 VoA - Europai Unio (mind)  73 sor     (cikkei)
3 White House - Clinton/CSCE (mind)  123 sor     (cikkei)
4 Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Newsletter (mind)  343 sor     (cikkei)
5 VoA - EU; Nemzetkozi konfliktus (2 cikk) (mind)  488 sor     (cikkei)

+ - VoA - Europai Unio (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

type=correspondent report
title=E-U / Summit (l)
byline=Thomas Anderssen
voiced at:

Intro:  European Union leaders have turned their attentions
toward Central and East Europe to close their two-day summit in
the German industrial city of Essen.  Thomas Anderssen reports
the heads of government from Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic,
Slovakia, Bulgaria and Romania are all pushing to have their
countries join the European Union as soon as possible.

Text:  Fundamentally, the European Union wants the former east
bloc nations to join -- but economic limitations prevent
membership in the foreseeable future.

The six candidate states have on average gross-domestic product
less than one-third the E-U average.  Immediate membership for
them would cripple the union and force it to completely
restructure -- a task no current E-U member would contemplate.

So, the former east bloc nations must wait.  The European Union
has promised them membership -- but refuses to set a date.
Friday in Essen, E-U leaders stressed a willingness to open up to
the east, but to do so gradually via regular political talks,
trade concessions and a steady harmonization of laws.  An aid
package of more than six-and-one-half-billion dollars will be set
aside during the next five-years to help the prospective members

E-U leaders have also addressed concerns that Eastern Europe is
getting too much of the union's attention.  The E-U leaders
decided to increase aid to countries in North Africa and the
Middle East and invited them to a special mediterranean
conference next year.

In the long term, the European Union is considering adding 10
former Soviet states to its numbers, in addition to Poland,
Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Romania --
whose leaders are at the German-led summit in Essen.  Also being
groomed for eventual membership are the Baltic states of Estonia,
Latvia and Lithuania and the former Yugoslav republic of
Slovenia.   (Signed)


10-Dec-94 6:24 am est (1124 utc)

source: Voice of America

A tovabbterjesztest a New York-i szekhelyu Magyar Emberi Jogok
Alapitvany tamogatja.

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Reposting is supported by Hungarian Human Rights Foundation News
and Information Service.

+ - VoA - Europai Unio (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

type=correspondent report
title= E-U Summit (l)
byline= Dagmar Beitenbach
dateline= Bonn
voiced at:

Intro:   European Union leaders have gathered for a two-day
summit in the German city of Essen to discuss and endorse a wide
range of plans.  These include a blueprint for eventually
bringing into the union six Eastern-European countries eager to
join, as well as initiatives to boost economic growth and fight
un-employment.  From Bonn, V-o-A's Dagmar Breitenbach reports.

Text:  The first issue on the summit agenda is expected to be
endorsement of plans for multi-million dollar road and rail
schemes, as well as an action plan designed to generate more jobs
in E-U economies, all of which suffer from high un-employment

At the afternoon session, summit leaders are expected to agree on
a plan to eventually include six young democratic Eastern
European nations -- the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland,
Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria -- in the union.

The meeting has been overshadowed by the west's most recent
failure to stop the war in Bosnia, and the ongoing debate about
how long U-N soldiers should remain there.  European commission
president Jacques Delors has stressed this development underlines
the need for the European Union to strengthen relations with its
eastern neighbors.

Before the Essen summit, chancellor Kohl said he wanted the
meeting to give the Eastern European nations a clear perspective
for eventual membership.  He said these countries must be shown
they are welcome in the union -- once their domestic and economic
situations permit joining.

No entry date for membership has been set, but several of the
eastern applicants might be eligible to join as early as the year
2000.  The leaders of the six prospective members will have the
opportunity to meet with their E-U counterparts at the close of
the summit Saturday.  They have already signed political and
economic accords paving the way to E-U membership.

Participants at the summit are not only the leaders of the 12 E-U
states, but also the leaders of Austria, Finland and Sweden,
which join the union January 1st.  (Signed)


09-Dec-94 7:28 am est (1228 utc)

source: Voice of America

A tovabbterjesztest a New York-i szekhelyu Magyar Emberi Jogok
Alapitvany tamogatja.

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Reposting is supported by Hungarian Human Rights Foundation News
and Information Service.

+ - White House - Clinton/CSCE (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)


                  Office of the Press Secretary
                       (Budapest, Hungary)
For Immediate Release                           December 5, 1994

                     REMARKS BY THE PRESIDENT
                           Hangar LRI-1
                         Ferihegi Airport
                        Budapest, Hungary

2:45 P.M. (L)

             THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you, Ambassador Blinken, and
Mrs. Blinken, ladies and gentlemen, and boys and girls, and
people associated with the American Embassy, with our CSCE
delegation, to the Peace Corps volunteers, the American-Hungarian
Chamber of Commerce members who are here.
             I am delighted to be here on this all-too-brief
trip.  I'd like to point out some of the people who came with me,
our Ambassador to the United Nations Madeleine Albright is here
-- (applause); from the United States Congress, Senator Dennis
DeConcini from Arizona -- (applause); Congressman Steny Hoyer,
from Maryland -- (applause); and Congressman and Mrs. Tom Lantos,
from Hungary -- and California.  (Applause.)
             This is a very important trip for the United States
because I came here to reaffirm our nation's commitment to a
secure and united Europe.  As the Ambassador said, we put the
START I nuclear reduction treaty into effect today, and Ukraine
has joined Belarus and Kazakhstan in acceding to the
nonproliferation treaty.   We strengthened the CSCE to help to
prevent ethnic and regional conflicts.  So as a result of what
has happened today, this world is a safer place.
             The START I treaty alone will permit us to reduce
the nuclear arsenals that the United States and the former Soviet
Union countries by 9,000 nuclear warheads, to destroy delivery
systems with the best verification systems ever.  It will permit
us to now start work on START II, which will cut our arsenals by
another 5,000 warheads.  This means that when we finish this
work, we will have reduced the nuclear arsenals of the world by
more than two-thirds over there cold war height.  That's good
news for the children in this audience, and for the rest of us as
             One of the things that we have got to do now is to
keep working until we achieve next year an indefinite extension
of the nonproliferation treaty, so that we can continue to keep
down the risks of the development of nuclear weapons, especially
in an era in which the biggest problem may be the proliferation
of weapons of mass destruction to heretofore unusual and
unconventional hands.
             I'd like to say a brief word about this CSCE
meeting.  The United States believes the CSCE has a vital role to
play in promoting democracy and diminishing conflict throughout
Europe.  We believe it can help nations work together to bring
democracy and prosperity to their peoples, and to continue our
effort of promoting European unity.
             Our host, Hungary, like its democratic neighbors, is
making steady and strong progress toward full integration into
Europe.  I believe it can, and will, complete its transformation
to a free market.  I believe its commitment to playing an
important, responsible role in the new Europe is good news for
all of us.
             Last January, almost a year ago, I went to Brussels
and then on to Prague and on to Russia to begin the work of
building a new and united Europe.  In the nearly one year since,
I have come back to this continent three times to work toward
that goal.
             From our initiatives to open and to expand NATO, to
reducing the threat of nuclear weapons, to making trade more free
and fair, to building up institutions like the CSCE, to working
toward preventing conflicts before they get out of hand.  Through
all these efforts, this European continent is becoming more
secure, more prosperous and more united.
             Yes, there are problems, and there always will be as
long as human beings populate the globe.  But we are clearly
moving in the right direction, and that is good for the United
             As I close, let me say a special word of thanks to
the American missions in Hungary and to the CSCE staff.  I didn't
want to leave Budapest without having a chance just to tell you
how much we appreciate your service, your sacrifice at a time of
very great challenge.  I also thank the Peace Corps volunteers
for their important contributions.  They represent the best of
our country around the world.
             I'm very proud of all of you.  I thank you for the
warm welcome today.  I wish I had longer to stay, but this is a
wonderful way to end the trip.  Thank you very much.  (Applause.)

                               END2:50 P.M. (L)

A tovabbterjesztest a New York-i szekhelyu Magyar Emberi Jogok
Alapitvany tamogatja.

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Reposting is supported by Hungarian Human Rights Foundation News
and Information Service.

+ - Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Newsletter (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

N  E  W  S  L  E  T  T  E  R

Republic of Hungary                             Budapest, 1394 . 423
Ministry of Foreign Affairs                     Telephone:36(1)156-8000
Press Department                                        Telefax: 36(1) 156-3801
548/1994.                                       Budapest, December 08, 1994

Hungarian Press Review

        Budapest, December 7 (MTI) - All Hungarian dailies on Wednesday
carry detailed reports and analyses on the Budapest summit of the
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), which ended
here on Tuesday.

        Some of the headlines: Nepszabadsag: The editorial is entitled
"Europe Summits Ends with Imbalance Result". Magyar Hirlap: "No
Solution to Yugoslav Crisis". Magyar Nemzet: "CSCE Defeated at Bihac".

        Nepszava: Hungarian Foreign Minister sums up the end result of the
two-day conference, saying "... an international organization cannot do
more than what its members are ready to do."

        Kurir: military expert says "Yeltsin only wishes to delay Hungary's
membership in NATO, but will not prevent that in the distant future, as
Hungary has no common border with Russia."

        Uj Magyarorszag has learned that 1,950 diplomats attended the
summit, and 1,855 journalists, television and radio staff covered the event.

        Kurir: The CSCE summit created an opportunity for small countries
to be present as equal partners to the great powers, the leader of the
Bosnian delegation said, in an exclusive interview. The diplomat
complained that they were mainly disappointed over the final decision of
the summit because Bosnia - not being a member of other organizations -
looked upon the CSCE as the only forum that it could turn to.

        Magyar Hirlap: The mandates of the National Bank of Hungary (NBH)
vice-presidents will expire on Friday, but no decision has been reached so
far as regards their future. According to information, Frigyes Harshegyi
and Sandor Czirjak are to be asked to continue on.

        Budapest, December 7 (MTI) - Nepszabadsag: There are three
mortality causes in Hungary which claim the lives of more people under
the age of 60 than at an older age: cirrhosis of the liver, suicide and traffic
accidents. All three are in close connection with alcohol consumption.
According to an expert, one-tenth of the Hungarian population drink 80-90
per cent of the total alcohol consumed nationwide.

        Nepszabadsag: The friend or foe identification system fitted into the
aviation means of the Hungarian Army is to be handed over next Tuesday.
Ministry of Defence spokesman Lajos Erdelyi said Hungary is the only
country in the Central and Eastern European region that has such a
system, which accords to the NATO standards.

Hungarian and Kazakh Presidents Meet

        Budapest, December 7 (MTI) - Kazakhstan is extremely satisfied with
the results the western Hungarian agricultural complex of Babolna has
produced in the Central Asian countries, and would therefore like to see
greater participation by Babolna in improving Kazakh agriculture.

        Kazakhstan would make more land available to Babolna experts.
According to long-term Kazakh plans, farm produce grown in this way, for
instance using various fertilizers, would also go to eastern China. This was
among topics Presidents Arpad Goncz of Hungary and Nursultan
Nazarbayev discussed at Parliament on Wednesday.

        The Kazakh head of state, in Hungary for the European summit
which closed on Tuesday, today started official talks with his Hungarian

        Summing up the discussion, Hungarian presidential spokesman
Andras Farago said that Goncz had noted Hungary was linked to
Kazakhstan by both political and emotional ties. Recent research suggests
the ancient homeland of Hungarians extended to the present territory of
Northern Kazakhstan. The group of 1,700 Hungarians living in Kazakhstan
represents another link between the two countries. The Hungarian-Kazakh
Friendship Society plays an important role in fostering bilateral relations.

        Business links were the focus of the private and plenary talks
between the two presidents. Goncz welcomed the USD 40 million credit
guarantee accord which was signed on Tuesday between the Hungarian
Bank of Foreign Trade and Exim Bank of Kazakhstan, increasing the
security of Hungarian goods deliveries.

        While very happy with the agreement, Nazarbayev noted he thought
a framework for a larger amount would be necessary.

* * *

        Budapest, December 7 (MTI) - At his meeting with Hungarian
President Arpad Goncz in Budapest on Wednesday, Kazakh President
Nursultan Nazarbayev said his country saw very good chances for
cooperation in agriculture, where Hungarians might get priority, in energy
production and pharmaceuticals.

        He proposed Hungarian entrepreneurs in the oil and gas business
also take part in resolving problems connected with raw materials supply.
He also mentioned the Hungarian Ikarus buses, of which over 4,000 run on
Kazakh roads.

        Goncz asked that Ikarus capacity be also considered at the World
Bank tender called for next year. Nazarbayev suggested Ikarus could
operate in Kazakhstan as a subsidiary or a joint venture. Prospects are
also good for Hungarian entrepreneurs taking part in privatizing state
property in Kazakhstan, mainly in farming and food.

        President Goncz offered Hungary's help in training Kazakh
specialists. Nazarbayev said about 3,000 people from his country studied
abroad, and they would willingly come to Hungary as well.

        The Kazakh head of state proposed setting up a Hungarian-Kazakh
bank with support from the European Bank for Reconstruction and
Development. Another idea he raised was for a delegation of ministry
officials and Hungarian business people to visit Kazakhstan to survey
cooperation opportunities.

        Nazarbayev invited Goncz to visit Kazakhstan, who accepted the
invitation. An exact date will be fixed later by diplomats.

Horn and Kovacs on the CSCE Summit

        Budapest, December 7 (MTI) - "None of our neighbours oppose
Hungary's membership of NATO", Hungarian Prime Minister Gyula Horn
told reporters today. The Prime Minister, together with Foreign Minister
Laszlo Kovacs, gave a press conference in the wake of the CSCE summit,
which ended in Budapest yesterday.

        On behalf of the government, the Prime Minister thanked the
inhabitants of Budapest and the country for their understanding during
the event. He said that hosting the conference had served the interests of
the Republic of Hungary, and not those of political parties or groups.

        Horn said that the foreign delegations had appreciated the trouble-
free organization of the summit.
        All the heads of state and heads of government attending the
summit were met by either President Arpad Goncz or Prime minister Horn

        The Prime Minister said he had had talks with the leaders of almost
all the NATO countries and with senior officials of NATO, the European
Union and the Council of Europe. Prime Minister Horn underlined the fact
that the North Atlantic Assembly has practically accepted that those East
and Central European states wishing to join NATO may do so, indeed it
has actually mentioned a time period for this of two or three years.

* * *

        Budapest, December 7 (MTI) - "Our negotiating partners said they
thought that Hungary would be among the first states to be admitted to
NATO," Horn said, adding that creating friendly relations with other states
in this region was mentioned as a prerequisite for admission. "They
accepted our argument that Hungary's special situation makes it
particularly important that its security be guaranteed," Horn said. Among
the factors that determine Hungary's special position, Horn mentioned the
volatile situation in the Balkans and the several million ethnic Hungarians
living in neighbouring countries.

        Horn emphasized that "none of our neighbours oppose Hungary's
membership of NATO, even Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma described
it as a sovereign Hungarian decision. The only state which still opposes
our intention is Russia. The American and German governments are
pressing for a dialogue to persuade the Russian leadership to change its
mind. The countries which wish to join NATO, primarily Hungary, should
also take part in this dialogue."

        It was against this background that President Boris Yeltsin asked
for the meeting with him to discuss NATO membership that took place on
Sunday, Horn said. The Russian view is that the admission to NATO of any
country in this region would pose a threat to its security, he said.

        Horn disagreed with this and tried to convince the Russian
President that Hungary's entry would actually strengthen security in the
region. "It would also serve Russia's security interests to have a zone of
stability in its neighbourhood," Horn said. "We also stressed that the
question of NATO membership is a sovereign Hungarian decision. It would
be unacceptable to us if Russia created a precedent by preventing our
accession to NATO. If this happened, Hungary's entry into any important
international organization could be challenged, something which would go
against international norms and the international treaties and conventions
on sovereignty," the Hungarian Prime Minister said.

* * *
        Budapest, December 7 (MTI) - Hungary's ties with the European
Union also figured prominently in Horn's talks. "Obviously, Hungary
cannot expect to be admitted to the European Union in a few years" time,
say, before the end of the century. We accept the realities of the situation.
In our view, Hungary's transition to a market economy is in the interest of
the EU too. We wish to develop closer and more effective political
cooperation with the EU. In other words, we wish to attend all meetings
dealing with political issues, that is if they are not held behind closed
doors. We would like to be involved in the creation of a Trans-European
infrastructure as soon as possible. This is all the more important because
we would like to turn Budapest into a financial and trade centre."

        Horn emphasized Hungary's determination to join the West
European electricity grid and gas and other networks which would
guarantee it secure energy supplies.

        "Hungary wishes to develop further its association agreement with
the European Union. This would not mean an amendment or a revision,
only a step forward in accordance with the terms of the agreement," Horn

        "In connection with the free flow of labour, Hungary would
appreciate it if the EU countries were willing to accept more Hungarian
workers. Upgrading the PHARE programme would mean that the European
Union could contribute to developing research and manager training, and
to opening new border stations in Hungary," the Prime Minister said.

        "Despite the difficulties, Hungary's progress towards membership
of the EU could be accelerated. With this purpose in mind, the Hungarian
government is preparing proposals to be submitted to Parliament next
spring," Horn said.

Declaration of Hungarian Foreign Minister Laszlo Kovacs, the
Chairman-in-Office of the CSCE, on the Situation in the Bihac Area

        Budapest, December 7 (MTI) - Taking into account the discussions
held during the Budapest Meeting of the Heads of State or Government of
the Participating States of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in
Europe on the dramatic events in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and especially in
the Bihac region, the Chairman-in-Office strongly condemns the latest
violation of the status of safe area of Bihac proclaimed by the United
Nations as well as of the international border of Bosnia-Herzegovina and
Croatia by Pale Serb and so-called Krajina Serb forces operating from the
United Nations Protected Areas within Croatia, and all forces which
support them, stresses that these developments jeopardize the territorial
integrity of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia and threaten peace and
stability in the CSCE area, calls for a complete cessation of hostilities
throughout Bosnia-Herzegovina, including an immediate cease-fire in and
around the safe area of Bihac, and demands that the aggressors accept a
cease-fire, calls for urgent international action to protect and ensure the
safety of the civilian population and to provide humanitarian assistance,
urges all parties to allow and ensure the flow of humanitarian aid to the
beleaguered population of Bihac and throughout Bosnia-Herzegovina,
demands the immediate release of all United Nations" personnel currently
being denied freedom of movement in order to enable them to carry out
their mandate, expresses his support for the continued international
efforts to bring peace to the region and his conviction that peace can only
be brought about through negotiations, supports the work of the Contact
Group in the aim of bringing peace to the region, based on CSCE
principles and objectives, and condemns the Pale Serbs for not accepting
the peace plan, calls for the instruments of crisis management to be used
to full advantage against the destructive forces of aggressive nationalism
and territorial expansionism, expresses the hope that the failure to settle
the crisis strengthens determination to develop CSCE's capacity for
conflict prevention and crisis management.

* * *

        Budapest, December 7 (MTI) - Horn said that in his meeting with
Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma they had agreed on starting inter-
governmental talks to put an end to the intolerable hold-ups on the
Hungarian-Ukrainian border.

        Horn said his talks with Romanian President Ion Iliescu had not
been marked by "perfect love or harmony" but they had been rather open
and sincere. Iliescu complained that no Hungarian-Romanian summit had
been held over the past five years.

        Horn and Iliescu agreed that the work of specialists who are drafting
a basic treaty between the two countries should continue next January.

        Horn said, "of course, we laid great emphasis on the situation of the
Hungarian minority in Romania. We referred to the Romanian draft law on
education, and the statements of the chief of the Romanian Intelligence
Service in Parliament which offended Hungary."

        The Hungarian Prime Minister proposed that Hungary and Romania
should be among the first countries to sign the Council of Europe
Convention on the protection of minorities.

        Hungarian Foreign Minister Laszlo Kovacs said the Chairman-in-
Office of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
had the task of monitoring any changes that may endanger the security of
this huge region and prevent the enforcement of the principles embodied
in the CSCE. He must make the system of institutions work, and direct the
work of the "Troika", the Secretary-General, the High Commissioner on
National Minorities, the Permanent Committee, and the Committee of
Senior Officials. He must also follow the work of CSCE missions.

        In reply to a question, the Prime Minister described it as regrettable
that unfounded rumours about a possible government reshuffle had
appeared in the Hungarian press.

Hungary and NATO - Foreign Affairs Committee

        Budapest, December 7 (MTI) - Hungarian Foreign Minister Laszlo
Kovacs and Defence Minister Gyorgy Keleti today informed the Foreign
Affairs Committee of the Hungarian Parliament about relations between
Hungary and NATO.

        After the session, Kovacs told journalists he had informed MPs on
the recent change in NATO's position with regard to its enlargement, and
outlined the standpoint of the Hungarian government.

        "For Hungary, joining the Euro-Atlantic institutions for integration is

a complex process. This means that Hungary considers the enlargement
of NATO and of the European Union as parallel processes," he said.

        "Budapest welcomes and supports the extremely prudent approach
to enlarging NATO advocated by the United States. It agrees that this
process should be gradual and transparent. If it is carried out in this way,
NATO's enlargement will reinforce stability in the region and will not work
against the interests of Russia," he said.

        "Dispelling Russian anxieties lies in the interests of both NATO and
Hungary. The talks Prime Minister Gyula Horn and President Arpad Goncz
held with Russian President Boris Yeltsin offered an opportunity for this.
The Hungarian government wishes to hold further consultations about
NATO's enlargement and its implications, since this question is
unavoidable," the minister said.

        Kovacs said the Hungarian negotiators at the CSCE had confirmed
Hungary's commitment to joining NATO and that its decision to join is
Hungary's sovereign right.

A tovabbterjesztest a New York-i szekhelyu Magyar Emberi Jogok
Alapitvany tamogatja.

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Reposting is supported by Hungarian Human Rights Foundation News
and Information Service.

+ - VoA - EU; Nemzetkozi konfliktus (2 cikk) (mind) VÁLASZ  Feladó: (cikkei)

type=correspondent report
title= E-U/Summit (l)
byline= Dagmar Breitenbach
dateline= Bonn
voiced at:

Intro:  European leaders are headed to the German city of Essen,
where the European Union's biannual two-day summit opens Friday.
The summit is expected to discuss issues ranging from reducing
unemployment to protecting the environment.  V-o-A's Dagmar
Breitenbach reports from Bonn, eastern expansion of the 12-member
community -- which will count 15 members in January when Sweden,
Finland and Austria join -- is at the top of the agenda.

Text:  Expanding the European Union eastward is expected to be
the focus at the Essen E-U summit.

Before the Essen meeting, European commission president Jaques
Delors said the west's failure to stop the war in Bosnia
underlines the need for the European Union to cement relations
with its eastern neighbors now.  Offering security, he added, is
the most important issue.

Six Eastern European nations -- the Czech Republic, Slovakia,
Poland, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria -- already have signed
economic and political accords that are to pave the way to their
eventual and much-coveted E-U membership.  At the close of the
summit Saturday, the six Eastern European leaders will have the
opportunity to meet with E-U leaders in Essen.

The plan to enlarge the union eastward is preliminary, as there
are a host of problems to be overcome before former communist
nations can join the union.  But the E-U plan is widely regarded
as a firm commitment to bringing in the eastern countries.  While
no  entry dates have been set, some of the would-be E-U members
might join as early as the year 2000.

The Essen summit is also expected to deal with a wide range of
issues including how to fight unemployment, protect the
environment, deal with the refugee problem, and secure Europe's
position as an attractive industry and business location.

All of Europe's governments share the problems of high
unemployment and a lack of competetiveness with other parts of
the world.  To overcome the job crisis, the European commission
has drawn up a five-point action plan on employment, hoping the
Essen summit will adopt it in all points.

Germany currently holds the six-month rotating E-U presidency, to
be followed by France in January.  Essen, the city in the Ruhr
valley, was chosen to host the summit to highlight the
transformation of an area that depended heavily on coal and steel
industries to the present service-oriented economy.  (Signed)

08-Dec-94 8:57 am est (1357 utc)

source: Voice of America


     title="Managing Chaos" -- A Conference on International
    byline=Andrew J. Baroch
    editor=Phil Haynes

Content=  // Inserts on sound on demand //

Anncr:   As Bosnian Serb forces closed in on the U-N-designated
         Muslim "safe haven" of Bihac (bee-hahtch) in
         Bosnia-Herzegovina (boz-nyuh hairts-eh-goh-vee-nuh),
         former U-S secretary of state Henry Kissinger addressed
         a foreign-policy conference held last week in
         Washington, D.C. He blamed all the parties involved in
         Bosnia peace negotiations:

Tape     Cut one -- Kissinger
         "None of the nations that were conducting a policy in
         Bosnia stated objectives for which they were prepared to
         make the efforts and pay the sacrifices that were needed
         to achieve them. If nations can not bring their goals
         and their efforts into harmony, some sort of debacle is

Anncr:   In Mr. Kissinger's view, the "overriding concern" in the
         Bosnian conflict is "the cohesion of the Atlantic
         Alliance...one of the key elements of international
         order in the post-war period."

         The former U-S secretary of state delivered his remarks
         at a conference entitled, "Managing Chaos, Coping with
         International Conflict into the 21st Century" -- where
         more than one-thousand diplomats, scholars, peace
         activists, and relief officials debated ways of handling
         national disputes and conflicts like the one in Bosnia.

         In this focus report, written by Andrew Baroch,
         __________ examines  the consensus of the conference --
         that the overriding concern is  not  traditional
         institutions like NATO, but the people victimized by

Text:    The conference on "Managing Chaos" was sponsored by the
         United States Institute of Peace, a U-S
         government-funded agency established during the cold war
         and dedicated to teaching methods of resolving
         international conflicts in the post-cold-war era.

         Institute president Richard Solomon says this era is
         unpredictable and chaotic.

Tape     cut two -- Solomon
         "The only problem is we can't figure out where it's
         really headed, and we're having trouble trying to come
         up with a perspective and policy for dealing with it.
         What we do know is that the end of the superpower
         confrontation did not bring a time of peace. The
         institutions and the policies of the cold-war period are
         proving unsuited to the challenges of our times."

Text:    Campaigns of genocide, intensified nationalism, tyranny,
         famine, civil wars, collapsing states, nuclear
         proliferation, and massive refugee flows appear to have
         multiplied dramatically since the end of the cold war in
         1989. Mohamed Sahnoun (moh-hahm-met sah-noon), an
         Algerian diplomat, is a former special U-N
         representative to Somalia.

Tape     cut three -- Sahnoun
         "When you think of the ability of people today to even
         acquire nuclear technology and to acquire the
         possibility of making small nuclear bombs, you can see
         the prospects of a world without really a response. The
         horn of Africa is one of the very, very difficult
         situations that we have to deal with. I think Central
         Asia today is certainly a very difficult situation --
         and the remains of the old Soviet empire; I think some
         parts of Eastern Europe, and we see it today in Bosnia,
         especially. I'm very much worried about the situation in
         the Balkans, not only in Bosnia, but tomorrow in
         Macedonia and Albania. These are some of the spots where
         we certainly have a lot of concern."

Text:    Mr. Sahnoun says the United Nations is responding:
         between 1988 and 1992, funding for humanitarian
         assistance has jumped from 25 percent to 45 percent of
         the total U-N budget. And the peacekeeping budget alone
         has gone up ten times in this decade.

         Which regional conflict or natural disaster receives the
         most world attention depends on the so-called
         "C-N-N-factor," according to many analysts. C-N-N is the
         cable news network, which can transmit live broadcasts
         from anywhere in the world.

         A-B-C newsman Ted Koppel says he first realized C-N-N's
         full impact after covering the dissident movement in
         Romania in the late 1980's.

Tape     cut four -- Koppel
         "Dissidents there had taken encouragement from scenes of
         anti-government activities in Hungary, Poland, East
         Germany, that they had watched on C-N-N.  Nor was this
         cross-pollenization of political activism limited to
         Eastern Europe. What happened in Europe was seen by and
         fueled the activism of dissidents in China, and the
         occupied territories of Israel and throughout South
         Africa. Satellite technology has done for television
         what short-wave transmissions did for radio. It has made
         geographic borders irrelevant."

Text:    Ted Koppel says the new technology has -- as he puts it
         -- "enormous consequences" for American foreign policy.

Tape     cut five-- Koppel
         "Scenes of starving children in Somalia [in 1993]
         clearly helped precipitate or involvement in that
         country. Just as scenes of that dead [U-S army] ranger
         being dragged through the streets of Mogadishu speeded
         up the timetable for our withdrawal. Scenes of
         incredible brutality in Rwanda and Haiti forced a degree
         of involvement in both countries that had little or
         nothing to do with what is normally defined as U-S
         national interest. The same can be said of television
         pictures from Tiannenmen Square in 1989, of scenes
         showing young Palestinians being beaten by Israeli
         troops during the height of the Intifada [Palestinian
         uprising], and more recently, the incredible violence
         being perpetrated throughout the former Yugoslavia."

Text:    Mr. Koppel warns that the American public is more likely
         to be influenced by these images if it gets little
         direction from the U-S government.

Tape     cut six -- Koppel
         "The absence of adequate focus provides the political
         equivalent of a vacuum, in to which all opinions -- no
         matter how inconsistent they may be -- are irresistably
         drawn. Random scenes of cruelty and suffering
         instantaneously communicated to a nation from around the
         world are destined to have a disproportionate influence
         on public opinion because no countervailing compass

Text:    Mr. Koppel contends that U-S policy makers would have
         success if they defined America's national interests in
         the post-cold war era more precisely -- in terms of
         national security and economic interests -- rather than
         making general pronouncements about supporting
         democratic values.

         Former U-S secretary of state Henry Kissinger says that,
         five years after the dissolution of the Soviet empire,
         the United States has yet to re-define American foreign
         policy for the post-cold-war era.

Tape     cut seven -- Kissinger
         "Now, we have emerged into a world without clear-cut
         strategic enemies, without an overwhelming ideological
         challenge, with a series of crises that have no obvious
         terminal points. And the question arises: how do we
         define the American position at that moment? Moreover,
         how do we do it so that foreign nations can rely on some
         continuity and some constancy //opt// and don't have to
         fear that every time there is a change of administration
         in this country, all the trees are uprooted to see
         whether the roots are still there. This, I think, is the
         fundamental foreign policy challenge of our time." //End

Text:    Mr. Kissinger says that U-S foreign policy -- in his
         view -- has  not  met that challenge in Bosnia -- or

Tape     cut eight -- Kissinger
         "The philosophical issue of which the current tragedy in
         Bosnia is an example concerns the nature of when America
         should use its power. There has been an enormous
         reluctance in American history to justify foreign policy
         on the grounds of national interest. There has been an
         extraordinary tendency to find some universal approach
         in the name of which we react. //Opt//  [U-S] President
         [George] Bush, at the end of the extraordinarily
         successful Gulf war, nevetheless said that the reason
         why we had such wide support was because 'everyone
         understood that we had no interests in the gulf, that we
         were defending international law, universal principles,
         and some other general slogans.' It was a very American
         attitude." //End opt//

Text:    Henry Kissinger notes that two successive U-S
         administrations have  talked for nearly three years
         about defending democratic values in Bosnia --
         principles like self-determination and human rights --
         but were  not  willing to back it up with the credible
         threat of force.

Tape     cut nine -- Kissinger
         "//opt// If punishing aggression meant returning the
         Serbs to beyond the borders of the administrative entity
         called Bosnia in the Yugoslav federation, then ground
         forces of a substantial size were necessary. If one was
         not willing to supply ground forces, one was obliged to
         state objectives which were related to what one was
         willing to do. //End opt// The tendency to state some
         general goal and then to apply it generally around the
         world must be related -- as it was not in Bosnia or, for
         that matter, in Somalia, or elsewhere -- to what our
         capabilities are to achieve these objectives.
         Containment was an operational policy. Enlargement of
         democracy is a much more complicated policy that can not
         be applied with equal precision in every part of the

Text:    But some values are, in fact, universal and remain an
         essential element in the making of U-S policy, according
         to former U-S secretary of defense Les Aspin.

Tape     cut ten -- Aspin
         "The values of the United States are that the United
         States should not stand aside while people starve, that
         ethnic cleansing should not be allowed to happen, that
         democratic governments should not be thrown out of
         office and replaced by dictators. Those are part of the
         values of the United States. What is interesting is that
         we are in debate in this country -- on a rather
         consistent and continuous scale -- over the issue of
         using U-S military assets to protect American values."

Text:    //opt// Mr. Aspin says the debate is between what he
         calls the "realists and isolationists" and the
         "internationalists and the moralists."

Tape     cut eleven -- Aspin
         "The realists and the isolationists would argue that we
         have problems here at home, that all of these things are
         a potential quagmire, that there's dangers in the wrong
         signals sent. The internationalists and the moralists
         say 'you can't ignore the value cases. Ignoring the
         value cases is the kind of thing that brought us the
         holocaust. American stands for certain values, and you
         can't walk away.'" //End opt//

Text:    Les Aspin adds the U-S military is generally wary of
         "values cases," such as peacekeeping, because much of it
         involves police work, which is  not  what soldiers are
         trained to do.

         //Opt// Ironically, says Mr. Aspin, the U-S military has
         been somewhat successful in peacekeeping, or values,

Tape     cut twelve -- Aspin
         "The times that we have used U-S military forces for the
         values agenda, more often than  not,  are successful.
         About two-thirds of the time, it's successful. Success
         being defined as going in, doing the job, and being able
         to leave. I don't think you can call it a success if you
         go in and do the job and end up with troops there on a
         permanent basis -- or more or less permanent basis. But
         if you go in and do the job and can pull the troops out,
         that's a success."

Text:    But governments do  not  go it alone in the area of
         international conflict management. Non-governmental
         organizations -- or so-called N-G-O's -- which have
         traditionally provided food and other humanitarian
         assistance to regions wracked by conflict and natural
         disasters -- also offer conflict-mediation services.

         Chester Crocker is a professor of diplomacy at
         Georgetown University.

Tape     cut thirteen  -- Crocker
         "It could be an academic or a facilitator or an
         organization like the Peace Institute or the Carter
         Center [in Atlanta] or 'search for common ground' or the
         people up in Cambridge, [mass.], with the Harvard
         negotiations project. There are a number of centers
         where this kind of activity can go on. There are
         specialists who have their own particular 'cookbook'
         [set of conflict resolution formulas] for how you do

Text:    Mr. Crocker says that conflict resolution includes all
         types of negotiation.

Tape     cut fourteen -- Crocker
         "I think that there's a wide range of approaches now
         that are under that broad heading of conflict resolution
         and peace-making. It's no longer the possession of a
         small, academic or other constituency. It's a very
         broad, all-inclusive set of theories and approaches and
         practitioners who do it. Governments do it.
         International organizations can do it. And, as I said,
         private organizations."

Text:    Chester Crocker describes a typical N-G-O strategy for
         conflict resolution:

Tape     cut fifteen -- Crocker
         "You need to reach out to 'influentials' who are not
         actually in decision-making in a country and get them to
         listen to each other. That's more of a process of
         education and learning, breaking down stereotypes,
         getting people to understand what their interests are
         and what their fears are -- and to really open up to
         each other and listen. You need weeks and weeks or
         months and months of that kind of thing, in some cases,
         to get the process going."

Text:    For example, last year, the organization of African
         Unity asked mediation specialist Mohamed Sahnoun to
         settle a conflict that had led to more than 100
         casualties in and around Brazzaville (brah-zah-vil),
         capital of the Congo.

Tape     cut sixteen -- Sahnoun
         "So I went there and spent a couple of weeks shuttling
         between the two sides and trying to harness the
         potential from the regional institutions, such as the
         European Union, and also from local organizations --
         such as women's assocations. We were able to check that
         conflict, and we were able to avoid its spread through
         the rest of the country. After that, we were able to
         organize elections, and it has achieved a really good
         result -- and it's still holding."

Text:    But the major test of international conflict resolution
         in the post-cold-war era -- say the experts -- remains
         Bosnia, and there -- says Chester Crocker --  the major
         powers have failed.

Tape     cut seventeen -- Crocker
         "We've had 'make-believe foreign policy' under both this
         administration and its predecessor. We have not been
         prepared to say publicly what is the reality, which is
         we're not prepared to change the facts on the ground
         [use troops to stop Serbian aggression]. So we have this
         punting across the Atlantic back and forth between NATO
         and the U-N -- no one really taking responsibility. It's
         gotten so bad now I think we're being forced into a
         choice. We're choosing NATO over the Bosnians -- the
         survival of NATO over the Bosnians. That's the way I see

Text:    Losing NATO would be far more serious, in the view of
         Henry Kissinger:

Tape     cut eighteen -- Kissinger
         "I believe it will be a tragedy if it [NATO] is
         permitted to wither away. We are living in a relatively
         calm period without obvious enemies of a strategic kind.
         But the vacuums that now exist -- if history is any
         example -- are bound to be filled."

Text:    Mr. Kissinger contends that "fundamentalist Islam" and a
         resurgent Germany and Russia, are -- in his words --
         "emerging forces" that pose a potential threat to
         Europe. The former U-S secretary of state joined a
         number of foreign policy specialists in Washington last
         week, addressing a conference entitled "Managing Chaos
         -- Coping with International Conflict in the 21st

         Some analysts didn't like the conference title and
         challenged the premise that chaos is a new and daunting
         development in international affairs. John Maresca
         (muh-ress-kuh), former U-S ambassador to the Commission
         on Security and Cooperation in Europe, argues that
         describing the world simply in terms of chaos or anarchy
         is -- in his words -- "an intellectual cop-out" and that
         foreign policy experts have a responsibility to explain
         what's going on "in rational terms," he says -- "even if
         it's complicated."

         A swedish diplomat, Jan Eliasson (yahn eh-lee-ah-sone),
         warns academics  not  to dwell on inventing formulas for
         understanding the post-cold-war era. The important thing
         -- as he sees it -- is that "we finally have a chance to
         put human beings at the center -- to move away from
         looking at nations as pawns in the geopolitical chess

         "It is somewhat ironic," he says, "that we are still so
         far away from that vision -- from what we hoped for when
         that wall tumbled down in the middle of Europe in 1989."

Cart     theme up in full

anncr:   You have been listening to focus on the Voice of
         America. Today's program on a recent foreign-policy
         conference in Washington on "Managing Chaos -- Coping
         with International Conflict in the 21st Century" was
         written by Andrew Baroch, produced by _______, and
         directed by_____________.

Neb / ajb / pch
08-Dec-94 6:06 pm est (2306 utc)

source: Voice of America

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Alapitvany tamogatja.

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