A heten megjelent a nemet Spiegel ujsagban egy erdekes cikk Kinarol.Sajnos
csak nemet-angol forditast tudtam csinalni,van nemet-magyar vagy
angol-magyar tolmacsoloprogram?Ime a cikk,jo szorakozast!
The jump kites
* China over everything: Hardly a state does not have such growth rates,
attracts so many investors, none builds as fast as the " factory of the
world ". Already in three decades the People's Republic could become
economic power number one. Does Germany job lose to the billion-realm - or
is this sales market our last chance? Become does Peking the largest
opponent of Washington? *
Here in Siberia the two large communist states supplied themselves still
before 35 years embittered engagements to deliver by the illusion
possessed, a running around the supremacy in the far east militarily. Here
at the broad river, that the Russians simply Amur call and the Chinese
poetically Heilongjiang, " black kite river ", hit the ideological
contrasts one on the other. Here, where few hundred meters from each other
the cities Blagoweschtschensk and Heihe remove compete - hostile-friendly
brothers on opposite banks, drug along from the vortices of world politics.
More unequal twins let themselves hardly be imagined. But not the weapons,
but the economic progress decided the duel. The " Zar " in Moscow and the
Secretary-General in Peking are far - perhaps conditions are straight
therefore like that exposing.
In some quarters Blagoweschtschensks seems the time stands to have
remained: Purged wood little houses seams of mud ways, weeds mould
rampantly grows from factory ruins, unfinished monuments of any Polit
officials sets. With its 210,000 inhabitants the center sees nearly in
such a way from as at Soviet times, when still no contact was possible "
after over there ". Lethargy coins/shapes the life, high unemployment,
Completely differently Heihe, whose imposante skyline over there-radiates
almost provoking into the verkommenen Russian place: an asparagus forest
of wolkenkratzern from steel and glass, stout filled supermarkets,
expensive restaurants. Within fewer years Heihe swelled on 240,000
inhabitants. Only one hammering and sawing, boring and tinkering. A new
bank develops, which mayoralty extended, a Bowlingbahn soon inaugurated.
Hundreds of Russian unemployed persons, under it the dismissals of the
recently closed sweet goods factory, take daily the ferry over there to
China. Librarians and teachers, whom from the state for months no more
content got, hire themselves in Heihe as waiters or charwomen. Others use
the visaless daily frontier traffic, in order to buy over there, up to 50
kilograms of goods are duty-free. They drag in their jute bags and plastic
bags at consumer goods to Russia, which they can carry. For the personal
need. For the relatives. In addition everything can be sold, a small
profit obtained in, the under-supplied Siberian villages cut off to a large
extent by the external world.
The large business however makes the Chinese. It swarms as entrepreneurs
to Siberia out. In Russia in the meantime cheaply factories can wood
processing workshops for Essstaebchen be operated, for example. Even
agricultural enterprises beyond the border stand under Chinese supervision.
The strict kp cadre mA Zhanyuan about teaches to the Siberians, as one can
induce melons in a climate rauen by way of compromise to growing.
Also just as cleveren as scruplesless Chinese entrepreneurs controls the
largest new building in the Russian city Blagoweschtschensk. The company
Huafu builds a new business centre in " Blagos " for local centre. Young
native Russians, who want to have a chance, learn inevitably Chinese. In
the meantime come realms of Heihe also into crowds as tourists into their
Siberian sister city. Above all the men. A flowering road line developed
at the Lenin boulevard, the company " Iskuschenije " ("temptation") under
the line of the resoluten Jungunternehmerin Walentina arranges for the
Chinese winners of history light girls. Russia must prostituieren itself
in the absence of other advantages, if it wants to have at the river black
kite still another breath of business chance against China.
In the last five years Russia has an average economic growth of
approximately six per cent obtained (that it precipitates at present
sumptuously, owes the Kremlin to a large extent to the high oil and natural
gas incomes); the democratic India brought it in this period also on on
the average plus six - both far outdone from the People's Republic with
their well eight per cent. Ever in history in any state so many humans
were not catapulted as fast from the poverty into a human being-worthy life
as in China after the 1978 initiated restaurant reforms - estimated 400
Of Peking national economy after kaufkraftparitaet on Japan and Germany,
vice-world champion already by-pulled the number one to the USA - and
should according to opinion of the experts at the latest of the
Investmentbank Goldman Sachs in the year 2040 be. China is the state,
which attracts 2003 with well 53 billion dollar far before the USA to most
direct investments; much money of the Chinese blood brothers in Hong Kong,
Singapore and Taiwan participates, in addition, from Europe and America.
And the transfer is not a one-way street: China had end of past yearly to
Japan with 403 billion dollar the largest foreign exchange reserves, is
enormous sums into government loans and enterprises of the USA - only with
Chinese assistance the Americans can live the USA borrowing interest
permanently over their conditions, become pressed, remain the dollar
The most successful country of the earth and the people-richest are in the
meantime interlaced in such a manner with one another and from each other
dependent that they could drive themselves by an abrupt and comprehensive
departure of funds and goods traffic mutually into the ruin. Fortunately
nothing speaks for the fact that they are so suicidal to also do it.
China became the work bench of the world: The capitalistic children of a
formally still communist system manufacture more toys, sew more dresses and
produce more shoes than any other people. Some workers tinker in dark Klit
under hardly human being-worthy conditions plastic bags, Christian tree
balls or primitive electronics toy, Charles of thickening and the
Manchester of the next to last century let greet. But China is long no
longer only the cheap country for foreign producers, it the jump on the
next stage created and hurries with giant steps the stairs of the
Already more than each second digital camera world-wide, each third Handy,
each fourth washing machine are manufactured, with television sets such as
air conditioning systems are appropriate for China particularly far in
front here. The markets west and east complement each other, without
consumers register it always consciously. Whether with whale Mart in the
American city Pekin (it borrowed their name in the twenties 19. Century of
of China capitals, because " exactly opposite " on the globe lies);
whether with Carrefour in the French Perpignan or with Karstadt in
Paderborn: The chances are overwhelming large that products larva are
located in China in the shelf.
However American consumers could have put billions dollar by Chinese cheap
products in the last 25 years on the high edge, estimate experts of the "
New York Times ". And also Swabia save via China. The bathe Wuerttemberg
t Shirts ("we can do everything except high German") let the Stuttgart
federal state government produce economically in the realm of the center.
Do the Chinese take " us away " the jobs? A factory of the glass
specialist bulkhead is diminished straight with rivet and nail in
Mitterteich, Bavaria, and shifted to Suzhou - 70 workers lost their place.
Even Hightech research establishments of world companies such as Siemens
are shifted direction China and killen high-quality local jobs.
How large the fear of the loss of jobs at the eastern competitors is, an
Infratest inquiry accomplished on behalf MIRROR occupies week passed. "
expecting it that German companies could produce move away German jobs in
the future strengthened in China and there?", Meinungsforschungsinstitut
wanted to know. 65 per cent of the Federal citizens did not affirm the
question, only 31 per cent saw the danger. In the west of the republic and
with the 18 to 29-Jaehrigen the percentage of the anxious ones was even
On the other hand nearly a quarter of the tender seedling upswing hangs
here to country off of the dramatically growing exports direction China -
obvious a giant sales market for " our " goods. Also as an importer the
People's Republic develops tremendous dynamics: The imports rose in the
past year by 40 per cent. Particularly the German national economy
profited from it, it supplied in the year 2003 goods in the value of 18.2
billion euro to the People's Republic - nearly to 70-mal more than 1972,
which year, in which Bonn and Peking took up diplomatic relations.
Long it does not concern any longer an aspirin or a Cola from west
production to sell to the Chinese to dream of the first generation of the
China dealers. Practically all firms of world-wide reputation produce in
the meantime in the People's Republic and often also primarily for the
* " the leaders of our nation must are informed that which we want to take
our fate into the hand. We want no more Gods or emperors." * / Wei
Jindsheng, Dissident /
VOLKSWAGEN sets off in the realm of the center of more cars than in
Germany, thereby however of the foreign competitors strongly is pressed and
loses market shares; BMW opened, expects straight in the northeastChinese
Shenyang a new factory soon a excursion of the Federal Chancellor (it would
be already Schroeders sixth attendance as a head of the government in the
People's Republic) - of China in the meantime fastidious consumers require
world level. However in the first half-year 2004 42 new models came on the
market, and the prices fall. Also wolf castle had to bend itself this
pressure and offer its cars more cheaply. Laptop presentation in Shanghai:
" the locomotive, which draws the growth of the world economy forward, the
giant gorilla, which sucks jobs off from the west "
And of because of arrears with most modern technologies or the production
of luxury goods. In Zhongshan in the province Guangdong was inaugurated
few months ago a work for the building of super+skillful State OF the kind
Hochseeyachten for the billionaires of this world. The British army
entrusted the production of combat suits of its soldiers the Chinese. And
the internal-Chinese information flow runs, anyhow in the rich coastal
regions, to a large extent electronically. A people goes to on-line, with
87 million Internet Usern straight place two behind the USA conquered; 1,5
million are added - each month.
Self-confidently Chinese founder companies dare themselves such as Haier,
Galanz or Lenovo also on the international market and hope soon for a mark
recognizing value such as Microsoft, Sony or Bosch: Firms of world-wide
reputation from tomorrow, rivals with household appliances and computers
already today. Similarly as once the Japanese some Shopping routes
expensive thereby afford. The Chinese company TCL cutter took over the
insolvent Bavarian manufacturer - and was promoted by the Zusammengehen
with the French company Thomson to the largest TV manufacturer of the
world. Nationally controlled oil companies such as Sinopec buy themselves
into Russian, kasachische and Sudanese energy sources.
No country does not use more steel and coal than the gefraessige eastern
Drache, more cement, and up to the USA also no so much oil gets itself of
the world market, however in the previous year plus 15 per cent. 162,000
kilometers of roads are in the building, in order to connect the now
already approximately 100 Chinese towns with millions of inhabitants - a
bitumen belt, which could re-clamp the earth four times, the German
motorway net is not times a tenth so large. And as if there would be it
for each new record special bonuses, continues with the Superlativ addicted
ones in breath-robbing speed faster, more highly.
At the Yangtze with the world largest city Chongqing (with eingemeindeten
suburbs: 31 million inhabitant) the straight most gigantic dam project of
all times, all countries is completed. For the Perl river delta with
Zhuhai is two billion a dollar expensive giant bridge in planning. In
Shanghai - according to " Washington post office " " at present the most
exciting city of the planet ", according to US restaurant economics "
Forbes " the " most promising place for enterprises world-wide " - races
from German enterprises here, and only here, as regular means of transport
completed commercial magnetic levitation transport system at 431 kilometers
top speed of the airport direction city. Into the proximity of the Grand
Hyatt Shanghai, the highest hotel of the world, its lobby in 54. Stick
lies, the bar in floor 87. Only two weeks ago ago engine haven fans
admired the Chinese Formel-1-Jungfernrennen on a superdistance placed in
scarcely 18-monatiger record time finished.
No doubt, the east is red. Ferrari-red.
The first Chinese Grand Prix or in August the country-wide transferred Asia
Soccer Cup is however only plays for the olympic plays 2008 in the capital
Peking. There one can live not completely so Hyatt high as in Shanghai,
but however in " talks Capital Residence " a nostalgic " Suite of the
chairman " starting from 175 US dollar per night to rent; same price as
the Konkubinen Suite, so much augenzwinkernde Mao satire may be.
And during the world exhibition in Shanghai in the year 2010 China will
then present itself again as progress country absolutely. Also German
entrepreneurs, among them the Metro boss Hans Joachim Koerber, sit in an
advisor committee, which coordinates ideas for the future concerning town
construction of the Hamburg twin city Shanghai; the architect Albert
Speer, Sohn of the Nazi Gigantomanen, was allowed in Anting, in which
proximity of the metropolis at the Huangpu, plan a whole autocity.
" which is the market, in which one cannot afford it not to be thereby?
China. The pecuniary resource, which keeps America economics liquid?
China. The locomotive, which draws world economy growth forward? China.
The giant gorilla, which sucks jobs off from the west? China." On the key
questions of the world there was an answer at the world economy forum in
Davos in January 2004 in opinion " internationally of the Herald Tribune "
in each case. The Peking boom and its consequences were when meeting the
large ones in Switzerland main topic. The enthusiasm for possible chances
pushed thereby the quite material existing fears of threat back, of China
overheated economics could a crash landing suffer and the world economics
also into the abyss draw.
And perhaps the People's Republic becomes also soon in the foreign policy
the large competitor of the superpower the USA.
After years of the restraint on the international parquet Peking lets play
muscles. Before the Iraq war China demanded the avoidance of a weapon
course as one of the five constant members in the security council at the
French and Russian side to the joy also the German. Recently it supports
of Berlin ambitions on a seat in the security council (and tries meanwhile
to prevent a Japanese). Chinese help Haiti with UN peace missions in
Osttimor as in the Congo, since newest also in the western hemisphere -
scarcely 1000 kilometers before of Florida coast, in the disaster state.
To the fight against the international terrorism, also against the Muslim
separatists in the Xinjiang region, under China and Russia was created
guidance large parts of central Asia the comprehensive Shanghai
While handling the threat by the nuclear prepared North Korea Peking, also
moderating from self-interest, effect affect the incalculable dictatorship
in the direct neighbourhood. It stands thereby at the side of the USA and
the neighboring states. But to prescribe the People's Republic of their
agenda of none leaves itself, already not at all from Washington. With the
conflict around the west Sudan Peking with a threatened veto in the
security council prevents a sharper procedure opposite Khartum - the
People's Republic is a principal client of the Sudanese oil.
As self-confident, in addition, aggressively and of China government to the
Taiwan question near-gone, experienced only at the beginning of of July
president Bushs Sicherheitsberaterin Condoleezza Rice in Peking decided.
One condemns the newest weapon sales of the USA to the " abtruennige
province " on the sharpest, her was instructed. A referendum of the
politicians in Taipeh to national independence is already understood as "
declaration of war " and answered with an attack. At the latest up to the
year 2020 the island home must in the realm, either on peaceful way or
evenly differently. Later a weapon-rattling/clinking military exercise of
the people release army began days - whole 280 kilometers from Taiwan
Japan and South Korea refrain from interference with such martialischen
gestures in relation to the democratically legitimized government Taiwans.
The economic dependence of both states, whose largest trade partner is
Peking in the meantime, does not permit open Zwist with their giant
neighbour. Applies still more clearly to the smaller neighboring states
such as Burma, where the Renminbi is in some border regions in the meantime
the second national currency. The People's Republic is about without doubt
to become the determining strength of Asia. One no longer secret great
power - and sometimes even an uncanny.
" if China awaked, erbebt the world ", Napoleon Bonaparte once said. Today
the former US minister of foreign affairs Henry Kissinger sees the prophecy
fulfilled: A dramatic misalignment of the international policy takes place
before our eyes, means it - " the gravitation center of the policy shifts
into the Pacific area ", and in front to China. Also Konrad Seitz, former
German Ambassador in Peking, regards the ascent of the People's Republic as
the at present most important development: " fundamentally the political
balance of power in Asia and the competitive position on the markets
shifts." The " New York Times " already proclaimed - after the past
American century - in July 2004 the new " Chinese century ": " the country
has itself changed, now changes it the world."
A little even space. In October past yearly shot the Chinese after the
Soviets and Amerikanern as the third nation humans in the universe full
national pride found it for the man in weightlessness a new word creation:
" Taikonaut " (derived from " Taikong ", Chinese for " space"); the space
cap let baptize the government, officially the Atheismus obligated, "
Goettliches ship " ("Shenzhou").
Inside circles of the Pekinger Politbueros, whose nine members are all
together trained engineers, one glows before national pride. " the moon is
a Ami ", before 35 years, after first Moon milling the US astronaut Neil
Armstrong, the largest German boulevard newspaper sealed now. It means now
soon: " the man in the moon - a China man "?
The first Weltraumtrip was only an amazing technical achievement in a long
set of impressing research successes. Chinese scientists succeeded in for
example implanting to a cancer-damaged woman the ovary recovering to decode
human embryos to clones as well as parts of the rice hereditary property.
" you are the future ", called deeply impressed whether imaginativeness
shown and the Wissbegierde in Peking Eric Lander, prominent American gene
researcher of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, young Chinese
researchers too. And naturally Bill Gates before place is already it could
not not introduce itself to somewhere develop its idea of a conversational
time sharing between humans and computer differently than in China with a
Microsoft research center.
There memories become awake to a large, historical time in the realm of the
center - when the country felt rightfully as technological and political
navels of the world, when its rulers believed to possess " the mandate of
the sky ".
Silk, Seismograf and gun powder owe the world to this China. It developed
the magnetic compass and the mechanical paper trade; the realm of the
center possessed a highly developed commonwealth, when Europe and America
hunted still with primitive weapons or dawned in the medieval darkness
before itself. To in 15. Century was considered to China as country with
the most advanced technology and the highest pro-Kopf-Einkommen of the
world - until it is then enough in complacent isolation and colonial
exploitation sank, which overslept industrielle revolution to a large
And now - after the meantime of communist-Maoistic erring, which pulled
themselves as hinderliche, but nevertheless thin staubschicht over the
millenium-year old history of the country - a new large jump forward for
the dealer people? Forward into the past, China again on the way to the
number one? A billion-realm inexorably thereby, which best ones at western
technology to acquire to copy (or illegaly), from that laehmenden arrogance
to a large extent released, which let the emperor Qianlong say 1793 to the
envoy of the British king, it do not exist " need " at English products,
but the barbarian can swear obedience after the Kotau gladly?
The things changed themselves fundamentally. Today the fear of the west
does not consist of the fact that China isolates itself, but therein that
it " steals " from the Europeans and Amerikanern the jobs with its cheap
wages and the unrestrained diligence of its workers.
And the hope of the west is based on the fact that China is the large
customer market for its goods. German managers are inclined to the China
euphoria, the former Secretary of Commerce Otto count Lambsdorff speak from
" a certain China Besoffenheit ".
" unbelievable tingling " is it, " as the people forward wants ",
schwaermte for instance the chairman of the board of Swabian resounds,
Alexander earth country. " Panda Schmuser " are the Germans, say under the
hand easily veraechtlich Chinese politicians and scientists, who see
problems in their own country more critical long than those to their hosts
often after the mouth talking Teuton.
In Shanghai a new, ultramodern German Centre develops. " one cannot afford
it at all, in China thereby not to be ", means Heinrich of Pierer,
separating Siemens boss. White naturally also it, like many German
enterprises - from Naivitaet, pulled from self over-estimation, because of
their inflexible product range or sometimes of their Chinese partners
simply over the table - in the People's Republic fail.
Chinese experts of economic politics are rather carefully optimistic with
prognoses. Or like professor Xu Xiaonian with the mirror interview even
expressed sceptically, which concerns the smooth ascent of the People's
Republic to the superpower (see page 122). Peking failed thereby to let
follow which economic liberalisation a political opening - without
juridical system however the country will bring, means no long-term upswing
to conditions Xu.
Of China guidance sends in these months indeed contradictory, sometimes
almost opposite signals.
In December 2003 for example the central committee of the kp agreed to take
up the protection of the private property to the constitution in March 2004
made the national congress of people in the article 13 the " inviolability
" official. Likewise the private sector of China in the again seized
article 11 " is supported " " encouraged " and - a trueful epochale turn
for a communist realm.
But in government practice private companies, which furnish in the meantime
nearly two thirds of of China restaurant economics, are further
disadvantaged in relation to the national sector. Still prevail no right
security, the taxes and fees are higher for the private ones. During the
entrance to credits, to job market and foreign trade as well as to stock
exchange quotations they remain discriminated.
The problem of social reconciliation is still more burning. The gap
between arm and realm, coast and inland, city and country continue to
increase - without party chief Hu Jintao, 61, and prime minister whom
Jiabao, 62, which nevertheless designates the problem, a constantly
conclusive Gegenkonzept showed. They know only, what they do not want
definitely. Democracy as in the western countries is for China a " dead
end ", says president Hu, which is since in the middle of Septembers an
also highest military boss of the country and so that at least
theoretically the authority possesses to change conditions. But true
participation of the people is afraid the kp still like the devil the
Convenient in of China richest city Shenzhen, close of the special
administrative region Hong Kong, the standard of living achieved Central
European heights; southwest provinces such as Guizhou cancers far under
India level. A Shanghaier entrepreneur spends the federation " with the
lunch with colleagues in presenting restaurants as the " M on loose the
annual salary of a farmer. The urgently demanded structure of a national
security system with pensions and unemployment pay still is in the
beginnings - loser in the distribution fight is calculated once of the kp
clarified worker and Bauernproletariat, who sit down ever more frequently
also with strikes and furious demonstrations to the resistance. Even it
must the kp admit that in the villages of China the poverty increases
again, after official statistics around 800,000 humans in the year 2003.
The party tries to justify particularly with natural catastrophes such as
inundations and earthquakes, but the explanations work a little reliably.
However already the inflation rate, last over five per cent, is for the
farmers a heavy burden.
The new party leaders publicise outward a new openness; " humans the main
thing make ", reads the current, country-wide spread kp slogan. Party
chief Hu explains the anti-corruption fight as the top-priority case - in
the last months a half dozen of high province officials was condemned
because of theft to long imprisonments. Prime minister whom vibrated
before current cameras the hand for an aids patient and makes as in China
the for a long time neglected, itself as an epidemic disease spreading
immunodeficiency illness the political topic.
But only " constructional " criticism is permitted, " decomposing ", the
party authentication in question criticism placing leads in the labour camp
or prison. Jiang Yanyong experienced the straight at the own body. In the
spring 2003 the physician was still celebrated, because he made attentive
to the true extent of the Sars infecting in China; the illness playing
down ministers of health lost even its job. As the " honest doctor "
("people newspaper") however before that 15. Anniversary of the Tienanmen
massacre in an open letter a re-valuation of the kp of still defended shots
on the demonstrators demanded, pulled one it on open road into a car and
locked up it because of more heavily " mental mistakes ". After
international protests it became released in the middle of July again -
none knows whether it also remains it.
Contradictory also the juridical system presents itself. In the last 25
years the number of the lawyers of 2000 on 120,000 exploded, 70 per cent of
all judges in the meantime legal training went through, two of the highest
court studied even in Harvard and Yale. With arguments in the villages
much is not to be felt, there is still usual it by this
internationalization the fact that one acquires a judgement or lets its "
Guanxi " ("relations") play. And still the People's Republic holds also a
sad world record: Anywhere so many death sentences are not executed. 726
executions were reported by Amnesty international during the yearly 2003;
since a Chinese parliament delegate spoke few months ago of 10,000 death
sentences annually, one suspects that the dark number lies far more highly.
The principal punishment can be imposed by the way not only for murder and
rape, but also for tax evasion.
In the meantime some bases of a civil company nevertheless seem put: Also
legal proceedings are exerted now against the government, even won some.
Groups of human rights prangern environmental scandals on.
Privatkanzleien, which recruit by announcement customers, formulate
complaints. A worker, who lost both arms because of a defective machine,
kept awarded in Shenzhen 30,000 dollar smart money; a building firm in
Peking, which had long not remunerated 500 auxiliary workers one year, was
condemned to 608,000 dollar additional payments.
Against it the lawyer Zheng Enchong, which wanted to help the victims of
nationally ordered outline measures in Shanghai to the lodging right in its
houses, was less successful. It failed - and to 2003 under the absurd
reproach state secrets to have betrayed to three years prison condemned.
Questionably whether in March 2004 into the constitution taken up principle
("the state respects and protects the human rights") would have helped it
Successes and failures hit also in the economic policy one on the other.
The government in Peking tried in the past months feverful to brake the all
too generous granting of credit of the four large state banks 9. The
overheated economic growth could be weakened in the second quarter on 9,6
per cent: according to expert opinion a positive indication direction "
yields landing ". But the large banks still sit on putrid loans in billion
height. Since they are to receive the maroden state enterprises,
particularly in the heavy industry, to far alive, a solution is not to be
Also the heat wave in the summer 2004, after the Chinese calendar the "
year of the ape ", shows the weaknesses of the Chinese infrastructure. In
the whole country, particularly into the energy pulling into large cities,
the river is rationed: the drawback of restaurant success and the consumer
increase. However in Shanghai 2100 enterprises on instruction of the
city-upper had to work continuous at night - a pragmatic, but little
convincing temporary solution. In some places of north and west China even
the water must be rationed.
And which will only happen on the energy sector if the standard of living
develops further so dramatically? Will the Chinese on eternally with a
fifth its be content, which an American at water uses, and with a tenth at
energy? Will record-addicted China up to the year 2040 not also the number
one in the output from greenhouse gases become, is so harmful for the
climate of the world?
Knirscht in China thus at all corners and ends, requirement for law and law
reality gape painfully. But although because of some unfairness crying to
the sky a Grummeln goes through the country - particularly by the farmer
country -; although the party is high-grade unpopular and after an inquiry
80 per cent of humans to the villages and 75 per cent of the Staedter their
cadres for " corruptable " keeps; although unemployment in the "
Rostguertel" cities with its state industries before-of yesterday increases
and might after further mass redundancies still dramatically rise: The
Chinese do not let themselves be discouraged.
" which can not be avoided anyway, can one also directly welcome ", is
called a proverb in the realm of the center. The overwhelming majority of
the Chinese seems to believe firmly in the fact that there can be a better
future for it - and its children -. And that it must take it into the hand
to arrange this future.
The photo model Yang, the assistant Wang and the entrepreneur left are
three of these 1.3 billion. Three farmer children, who are broken open to
look for a new existence. Three in the taifun, which whirls the whole
country in disorder and surprising ungehoerte, in the realm of the center
so far, outrageous personal records creates.
Nothing than " new humans " Mao in its socialist China had gotten rid of to
create to want less, undemandingly, of his individual desires, embedded
into a making equal society and everywhere applicable after the will of the
party. Also 28 years after the death of the large chairman are again
created humans in China " " - by the skalpell of a beauty surgeon for
Yang Yuan, 20, originates from the province Henan in the heart of north
China, famous for its Shaolin competitive athletes, but in the country-wide
match around good jobs and opportunities for advancement rather far left
behind the coastal provinces. Already before two years the ambitious
farmer daughter saw only one possibility of coming upward there, where it
the beautiful dresses, which snap car, which gives luxury life, which is
familiar her from Pekinger Fernsehshows and Shanghaier Lifestyle magazines:
Yang recognized that its good figure offered the best market chance. The
switch-slim with the long legs wanted to become photo model or the film.
Or at least as a receipt lady in the Glitzer entrance hall of a success
company. It applied with beauty competitions in the province - with
Long the party does not regard measurement elections any longer than "
mirror-image-ritual environmental pollution " like once. In the vacation
center Sanya on the subtropical island Hainan takes place now already for
the second time one behind the other the " measure World election ". Such
a business-friendly climate, extremely unlocked for Kosmetik and other
Beauty products, gives it otherwise in the whole world, does not say the
But the internal-Chinese competition of the young ladies around a lucrative
place at the beauty sun is large. When Yang of full enthusiasm and act
urge came to Peking, she recognized fast critically: It was probably
hardly the most beautiful one in the whole country. She found no Glamour
job, had into a tiny suburb dwelling to in-rent itself. Thus she had not
imagined her conquest of the capital. It finally announced itself in one
of the numerous special hospitals, put under measurers. Four hours
schnippelte the beauty surgeon at it around, modelled mouth, nose and (run
d) eyes on western filming acre ideal measure. Price: 11,000 euro, paid
on pump; more easily discount, because the retreaded one permitted
Institut to put before afterwards photos out.
The pictures became Yang the calamity. The jury of the measurement Peking
elections excluded it, after a Konkurrentin had verpetzt around the crown
it; " artificial beautifulnesses ", was called it from organizer circles,
wants one not. They were there guessed/advised however with the resoluten
young lady from Henan to the wrong one: Which for a career setback, which
for an unfair face loss! Nowhere in the advertisement one completely and
nature-left beauty one demand, gave Mrs. Yang protesting to minutes. It
took itself a lawyer - and actually found a Pekinger court, which was ready
their case to negotiate.
The complaint of the " plastics Beauty " ("China DAILY one") was rejected.
Even if Yang went out now empty, you are open another, new competition: A
Pekinger a measurement election wants to organize businessman in November,
in which expressly only such women may participate, who let their
appearance of surgeons arrange. A fight for the most beautiful of human
hand " new humans " arranged as it were, a Frankenstein Festival - such a
thing came not even the silicone Carne capital Hollywood into the sense.
Glamour, Gucci, Givenchy? All this says from the eastChinese farmer
province Anhui to the unskilled worker Wang Zhao, 34, nothing at all. The
family father has other concerns.
The " iron rice dish " of socialism, the national occupation warranty with
minimum payment, but to some extent reliable security, burst, when it was
still another dte rodent. Straight one on the far country is called it
now: either a meagre life in the village periods and the tiny yard of the
family continue to manage, chanceless behind the standard of living of the
Staedter drop back - or the " blind river " Treck mentioned of the
internal-Chinese migratory workers follow, the perhaps largest " people
migration " of all times.
Approximately 150 million Chinese their villages turned the back, will be
already up to the year 2020 it according to expert estimations over 300
million, so many, as the USA have inhabitants. They pull into the capital
or into the metropolises of the " gold coast ", after Shanghai, Xiamen,
canton. They are the work reserve for the enormous building projects,
schuften for minimum wages and to a large extent without social security.
Without the army of the migratory workers of China would be not conceivable
Which like a course of the desperate ones could appear, above all a piece
is hope for many involved ones also and - still two decades ago strict
domicile control made more difficult the mobility, suppressed each chance.
The American author and China connoisseur Orville Schell believes even, the
People's Republic experience at present the lucky time, " in that,
exploiters ' and, exploitation ' an interest symbiosis connects " - like
for a long time it continues and whether she does not change a daily to
aggressiveness, it is not able to say however. None knows. Wang, a
drahtiger man with gleaning crop, inclined schneidezahn and much healthy
human understanding fallow in the spring 2002 from its village up, it had
gotten an address course-put by friends into Peking. Only it went with the
bus into the city Xuzhou, exciting enough. The following
14-Stunden-Zugfahrt in the overcrowded railroad cars of the " hard seat
class " as well as the skyline of the capital emerging then on the horizon
were for the farmer son a revealing. It had come out never before more
than 30 kilometers from its 3000-Seelen-Dorf Caocun.
The migratory worker schuftet now in of Peking cent ral Business District,
where a multi-million-dollar complex from purchase passages and offices
develops. Its construction crew pulls up directly at the " bridge of large
hope " a tower with luxury apartments. Wang brought it after first
unskilled labor to the crane custodian. The Mickymaus shirt weldingwet, he
directs the man above over Walkie Talkie in his pulpit. It pushes two
layers for each day per six hours, seven days the week.
Does it have at least the sky temple or the forbidden city, of Peking only
few kilometers removed main marriage worthynesses, already visited? " no
time ", says Wang. Into tracing it sleeps in a floor bed of a meager
barrack, ten men in a room. Also 13-Jaehrige are among its colleagues.
For each day to it scarcely four dollar are entitled to work, the employer
take off from it one of it for the cafeteria meal and the bed. The money
gives it only at the year end; in the meantime it the building company
places to " five lakes " with a monthly pocket money of twelve dollar
calmly. " with it the company wants to force the workers to make and not
knock their job off tidy ", says Wang to shoulder-twitch. In the last
year, nevertheless, the Bosse paid. And allegedly the company for it
locked also a life insurance. There it does not find so bad to Wang that
it must pay the company doctor, its protective helmet and the work clothes.
Its only luxury is a Handy. Once in the month Wang calls its wife, gets
the two sons to the telephone. " after it I feel better and can work
without concerns ", say he. And look forward on October, to the erntezeit
on the country. Because then it will drive back into its weiler, like
previous year. The village route will down-move, a hopeless line from
abandoned workshops, past at the Kesselflicker and the Sargmacher, to its
small property. Here he built himself of the iron saved money a house, a
one-story concrete block with four rooms and nevertheless with television.
His Mrs. Bi Ailien, which cultivates corn and wheat on the salty field
leased by the state and on the villagenear fallow land melons and
Hagebutten breeds, will wait for him. One will be able to buy enough meal
supplies for the winter, but many Yuan will not remain remaining.
Wang does not only have to nourish its family, but also its father-in-law,
who reads " in the Bible, instead of with anzupacken ". And the middle
school requires nearly 200 dollar for the older son Bihao in the year at
fees, books and recorder specially; for Xianxian, the younger one, again
120 becomes dollar annually due in the primary school. Nevertheless it
would not come Wang into the sense to save here: " education must be. My
children are to have it better. But I must create the conditions." With
the large policy it does not have much at the hat; but the fact that in
Caocun now their village mayor, although only under from the kp
abgesegneten candidate, even may select he finds it well. The urban air
made it more self-confident more freely and.
Can one also of left Qinfu, 42, say, eternally rushing, for which
superentrepreneur, who multi-millionaire, from whom friends state, it would
stand with a leg in the book of the records - and with the other one in the
The farmer son from the Shanghaier surrounding countryside, oldest of five
children, rehearsed bayonet attacks against the capitalistic enemy during
the school time with the pioneers still. It placed as young Rotgardist
during the culture revolution its a teacher against the Pranger. It flew
an old textile company then quick in drawing up Chinese restaurant spring
with support of local Parteibosse and tremendous diligence again as a
worker because of " free market activities " from a state enterprise - and
Left discovered a market gap, manufactured firm uniforms for the Japanese
market, found a Joint venture partner. Then it entered into the printering
Business, manufactured airline tickets and millionfold receipt vouchers for
the value added tax. His company Matsuoka had soon 20,000 persons
employed. The success entrepreneur did not kleckerte, he klotzte: He
rented the highest floors of the glass palace Plaza 66 in the Shanghaier
city center, afforded the Penthouse and a secretariat, around which Donald
Trump would envy him: polyglotte private secretaries in Chanel, which
looked all together in such a way, as if the measurement China elections
would have won it.
And left put itself in Pinghu, a half autohour south of Shanghai, business
building, which is architecturally hair-exactly shared to the Kapitol by
Washington. Before it a five one half meter high bronze statue - with its
own face courses. Lis of rights is stretched, as if she wants to point the
way into the future. " the palm does not direct itself outward, that would
be dangerous ", stresses the entrepreneur, who resembles the large chairman
with its black full hair and the round face a little in its bloom years. "
this gesture is Mao Zedong reserved."
He estimated himself on " some hundred million dollar ", enjoyed it, in the
year 2002 - however only with a proven amount of laeppischen 90 million -
to the " Forbes" list of the richest men of China being taken up. " I make
profit, but I pay also my taxes regularly ", said left Qinfu, owner of a
violet Lamborghini and a fleet of BMW, on demand treuherzig. Naturally one
must consist with the " correct " people of the policy and invite her to
the meal. " in China entrepreneur its, is called also today still: place
themselves with the government well. Hardly somewhat goes without official
permission. In the west the law over the guidance, with us stands it
When in the next to last year also entrepreneur invited the kp to apply for
a party book left considered its entrance into the policy. But friends
warned it, its chances well, its Extravaganzen with sports cars and own
statue would not stand would not arrive at Peking. The Matsuoka boss began
itself to make concerns on his silk cushions in the replacement Kapitol,
particularly since some stated, it with his new million Investmentdeals to
and around Shanghai as well as with his new production line of automobile
seats took over itself.
The clevere left went on dipping station, considered, pulling completely to
America where it its dte rodent son in the boarding school sent and where
he had bought - in Manhattan - an apartment. It remained, when it heard,
the political head wind dull off 2004. From a direction the entrepreneur
multi-millionaire obviously expected no attack: from its own company. And
that was possibly its crucial error.
At the beginning of of July communicated the supervisory board of Matsuoka
in dry words, one to " inadmissible loans " from over 23 million euro on
the trace came, which the chairman Li would have approved " without consent
of the firm supervisory board ". Criminal machinations? A plot?
The Firmenboss sees itself never hearing firmly in the saddle and wants of
separation rumors. And also its friends are sure that left is still for a
long time not Qinfu at the end. He will strike back, it is said; at given
place, at given time. And it is with a new enterprise rammed from the
soil. To the emergency above in the north, somewhere in Siberia.
For a long time scientists, politicians, journalists for explanations,
looked for from where the tremendous dynamics, which business-promoting
flexibility and the future affirmation of the Chinese come - and why all of
this about the majority of the Russians (like, on other level, at present
also many Germans) go off.
To recent history some experts mark that of China began over father Deng
Xiaoping end of the seventies - differently than Mikhail Gorbatschow
scarcely one decade later - reforms in the economic sector, not in the
policy. With the " release " of the farmers from national chains, which
permitted them to at least partly cultivate and sell fruit and vegetable in
self-direction. Bicycle repair workshops were tolerated just like button
manufacturers and other little businessmen. One created in such a way
achievement-oriented benefits, which flowed into a fast improvement of the
standard of living.
Historians state over thousands of years the developed trade routes of
China in relation to the isolation of many Russian places and landscapes as
reason - it made simple for Chinese more sense and brought in more, if they
produced agricultural goods in the abundance and other articles of
exchange, because they could also sell these.
Philosophers speak of the different effect of the envy factor: For Chinese
envy can rather a moving spring be attained at least so much or if possible
more than the reuessierende neighbour; many Russians bend - also in their
literature - traditionally rather to it, the successful ones on their own
to down-tear lower level.
With most China connoisseurs undisputed however is the crucial role, which
an individual philosopher for the development of the realm played. He
taught before approximately 2500 years, was moderately successful during
lifetimes and left nothing written (anxious trailers of later generations).
He was admired in before-revolutionary China, at Mao times verfemt and
celebrates with the new party elite straight again an ideological comeback:
Are its teachings verwurzelten deeply in the Chinese people the reason for
the fact that the economic liberalisation not - how from so many in the
west expects - a broad protest movement toward political reforms followed
that also a majority of the new middle class accepted the a party rule
Does the Konfuzianismus help the billion-realm to combine the " queue " of
the global free-market economy with the " hedgehog " of its unique history
and to find a third way, how the China connoisseur professor Peter Nolan
ERICH FOLLATH, ALEXANDER YOUNG, ANDREAS'S LORENZ, STEFAN SIMONS, HOW/AS